Artists and Cultural Workers in Canada’s Provinces and Territories

Based on the 2011 National Household Survey and the Labour Force Survey

Executive Summary

A previous report in the Statistical Insights on the Arts series (A Statistical Profile of Artists and Cultural Workers in Canada) showed that there are 136,600 artists in Canada who spent more time at their art than at any other occupation in May of 2011 (which is when the National Household Survey data were collected). The number of artists represents 0.78% of the overall Canadian labour force. The number of artists is slightly larger than the labour force in automotive manufacturing (133,000).

There are 671,100 people in cultural occupations, comprising 3.82% of the overall labour force. The number of cultural workers (671,100) is over two-and-a-half times larger than the labour force in real estate (254,200), about double the labour force on farms (339,400), and slightly lower than the labour force in the wholesale trade industry (733,500).

Based on Labour Force Survey estimates, there was a 56% increase in the number of artists in Canada between 1989 and 2013. This is higher than the 38% increase in the overall labour force. The number of cultural workers in Canada increased by 47% between 1989 and 2013.

Artists in the provinces and territories

Artists and Cultural Workers in Canada's Provinces and Territories shows that, among the ten provinces, British Columbia has the largest percentage of its labour force in arts occupations (1.08%). British Columbia has 24,800 artists who spent more time at their art than at any other occupation in May of 2011.

Ontario also has a higher concentration of artists (0.87%) than the Canadian average (0.78%). With 58,100 artists, Ontario has more than twice as many artists as any other province.

The 3,400 artists in Nova Scotia place it third among the ten provinces in terms of the proportion of the labour force in arts occupations (0.72%).

Quebec has the second-largest number of artists (28,200) and is fourth among the provinces in terms of the concentration of artists (0.69%).

In Manitoba, the 4,200 artists represent 0.68% of the provincial labour force.

No other province has over 0.6% of its workforce in arts occupations:

  • Alberta's 11,300 artists comprise 0.54% of the provincial labour force.
  • Saskatchewan's 2,800 artists comprise 0.50% of the province's labour force.
  • In Newfoundland and Labrador, there are approximately 1,200 artists, representing 0.47% of the province's labour force.
  • In New Brunswick, the 1,700 artists represent 0.43% of the province's labour force.

No estimates of fewer than 500 artists are provided in this report because of concerns over data reliability. Prince Edward Island and the individual territories (i.e., Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut) each have fewer than 500 artists.

In the three territories (grouped together to enhance data reliability), the 560 artists represent 0.98% of the labour force. This would rank second among the provinces behind only British Columbia.

In the four Atlantic provinces (i.e., Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick grouped together), the 6,700 artists represent 0.56% of the labour force.

Figure ES1

Source: Analysis by Hill Strategies Research based on a 2011 National Household Survey data request. Prince Edward Island and the individual territories are not shown because there are fewer than 500 artists in those jurisdictions.

Artists' average incomes

Quebec and Ontario are the only provinces where artists' average incomes from all sources ($34,000 and $34,900, respectively) are above the Canadian average ($32,800). In Alberta, artists' average incomes ($32,600) are very similar to the national average. In the other provinces and territories, artists' average incomes are:

  • $30,800 in Newfoundland and Labrador.
  • $29,100 in Nova Scotia and British Columbia.
  • $28,400 in Saskatchewan.
  • $27,400 in the three territories.
  • $26,800 in Manitoba.
  • $25,700 in New Brunswick.

In Canada, the average incomes of artists are 32% lower than the average incomes in the overall labour force. Artists' average incomes are well below the overall labour force average in every province. In Quebec, artists come closest to overall labour force incomes, with a difference of 22%. The income difference is between 30% and 40% in most other provinces, including Newfoundland and Labrador (30%), Ontario (also 30%), Nova Scotia (31%), New Brunswick (36%), Manitoba (37%), and British Columbia (also 37%). The income difference is 40% in Saskatchewan and 44% in Alberta. In the three territories, the income difference for artists is 53%.

Cultural workers in the provinces and territories

Among the provinces and territories, the Yukon has the highest percentage of its labour force in cultural occupations (4.62%, well above the national average of 3.82%). There are 970 cultural workers in the Yukon.

British Columbia has the second-highest percentage of its labour force in cultural occupations (4.34%). British Columbia has 100,100 cultural workers.

Ontario has 4.09% of its labour force in cultural occupations (273,300 workers). The percentages in Quebec (4.04%, 165,200 workers) and Nunavut (3.99%, 510 workers) are also above the Canadian average (3.82%).

The other provinces and territory have less than 3.5% of their labour forces in cultural occupations:

  • The 770 cultural workers in the Northwest Territories comprise 3.33% of the territory's labour force.
  • In Manitoba, the 19,800 cultural workers represent 3.16% of the provincial labour force.
  • The 14,900 cultural workers in Nova Scotia represent 3.14% of the province's labour force.
  • Alberta's 63,800 cultural workers comprise 3.05% of the provincial labour force.
  • In Newfoundland and Labrador, there are 6,600 cultural workers, representing 2.63% of the provincial labour force.
  • Saskatchewan's 13,800 cultural workers comprise 2.48% of the province's labour force.
  • The 1,900 cultural workers on Prince Edward Island represent 2.47% of the Island's labour force.
  • In New Brunswick, the 9,500 cultural workers represent 2.44% of the province's labour force.

Growth in artists and cultural workers between 1989 and 2013

The Labour Force Survey provides historical estimates of the number of artists and cultural workers. Because of the relatively small sample size of the LFS when dealing with smaller population groups (such as artists and cultural workers), there is substantial unexplained year-to-year volatility in estimates based on the LFS. In order to smooth out these irregular fluctuations, this report provides historical estimates using three-year moving averages. LFS historical data are available from 1987 to 2013, and three-year moving averages are provided for 1989 to 2013.

In order to compare growth in the number of artists, cultural workers, and the overall labour force, an index was derived. The index was set at 100 in 1989 for each group of workers.

In Canada, there was 56% growth in the number of artists between 1989 and 2013. As shown in Figure ES2, this rate of growth, along with the 47% increase in cultural workers, exceeded the growth in the overall labour force (38%).

The growth in the number of artists was greater than overall labour force growth in four of the seven provinces and regions presented in Figure ES2. The exceptions are: Alberta, where large growth in the number of artists (58%) was exceeded by very strong growth in the overall labour force (76%); Saskatchewan, where a small decrease in the number of artists (-1%) was lower than growth in cultural workers (24%) and the overall labour force (17%); and Manitoba, where the 23% increase in the number of artists essentially matched the growth in the overall labour force (24%).

The growth in the number of artists was highest in British Columbia (74% increase) and Quebec (73%). There were also strong increases in the number of artists in the Atlantic provinces (60%), Alberta (58%), and Ontario (48%).

Between 1989 and 2013, the number of cultural workers increased the most in British Columbia (79%), Alberta (62%), and Quebec (59%).

Figure ES2

Source: Analysis by Hill Strategies Research based on Labour Force Survey 3-year moving averages.


Methodological notes

  • Because of major methodological changes between the 2006 census and the 2011 National Household Survey, data in this report are not comparable to data in previous reports in the Statistical Insights on the Arts series. A subsequent report in the Statistical Insights on the Arts series will examine artists in local areas.
  • Readers should be aware that the estimate of cultural workers in this report differs conceptually from recent estimates provided by the Culture Satellite Account (CSA). The estimate in this report is based on occupations, while the estimates in the CSA report are based on culture industries and culture products. In addition to using a different methodology, the CSA estimates have a different base year and use different data sources.
  • Individuals are classified in the occupation in which they worked the most hours during a specific reference week. If they did not work during the reference week, they are classified based on the job at which they worked the longest since January 1, 2010. Artists who spent more time at another occupation than at their artwork during the reference week would be categorized in the other occupation.
  • Unless otherwise noted, the labour force statistics in this report refer to the experienced labour force, which includes all those who worked (for pay or in self-employment) during the NHS reference week as well as unemployed people who had worked since January 1, 2010.
  • Individuals who are employed or self-employed are captured in each occupation.
  • Artists who teach in post-secondary, secondary, or elementary schools are classified as teachers or professors and are therefore excluded from the count of artists. Instructors and teachers in some settings (such as private arts schools, academies, and conservatories) are included in the arts occupations.
  • The 2011 National Household Survey collected earnings information for 2010, the most recent full calendar year.
  • Income sources include wages and salaries, net self-employment income, investment income, retirement pensions, other income sources, as well as government transfer payments.
  • The employment income statistics (also called "earnings") include wages and salaries as well as net self-employment income.
  • The earnings statistics include amounts received from all employment and self-employment positions in 2010, not just the position at which the respondent worked the most hours during the reference week. In some cases, individuals may have worked in a different occupation in 2010 (the basis for earnings statistics) than the one in which they worked the most hours during the NHS reference week (May 1 to 7, 2011 - the basis for occupational classifications).
  • Artists' project grants would not be included in employment earnings but would be captured in other income sources.
  • Canadians 15 or older are captured in the occupational data.

 

Section 1: Introduction

This study provides an in-depth analysis of artists in Canada's provinces and territories, based on the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) and historical data from the Labour Force Survey (LFS). The report examines the number of artists, selected demographic characteristics of artists, artists' incomes, and trends in the number of artists. The report also provides comparable information for cultural workers and the overall labour force.[1]

This report complements a recent study in the Statistical Insights on the Arts series entitled A Statistical Profile of Artists and Cultural Workers in Canada. Some key findings of the national profile of artists and cultural workers include:

  • There are 136,600 artists in Canada who spent more time at their art than at any other occupation in May of 2011 (which is when the National Household Survey data were collected). The number of artists is slightly larger than the labour force in automotive manufacturing (133,000).
  • There are 671,100 people in cultural occupations, comprising 3.82% of the overall labour force. The number of cultural workers (671,100) is over two-and-a-half times larger than the labour force in real estate (254,200), about double the labour force on farms (339,400), and slightly lower than the labour force in the wholesale trade industry (733,500).[2]
  • Based on Labour Force Survey estimates, there was a 56% increase in the number of artists in Canada between 1989 and 2013. This is higher than the 38% increase in the overall labour force. The number of cultural workers in Canada increased by 47% between 1989 and 2013.
  • The total individual income of Canada's 136,600 artists averages $32,800, a figure that is 32% less than the overall labour force in Canada ($48,100). Cultural workers have average individual incomes of $42,100 (12% less than the overall labour force).

Methodology

Because of major methodological changes between the 2006 Census and the 2011 National Household Survey, data in this report are not comparable to data in previous reports in the Statistical Insights on the Arts series. Previous reports used the long-form census (a mandatory census of 20% of households), while the National Household Survey is a voluntary survey of 30% of households.

The change to a voluntary survey has an impact on the reliability of the data, which affects data analysis and reporting. Specifically, fewer details about artists are reliable from the NHS than the long-form census, particularly in smaller geographic areas and smaller demographic groups.[3]

In addition to changes in the data collection methodology, there is a change in the base population analyzed for this report compared with previous reports. This report examines the experienced labour force, which includes all those who worked as an artist during the NHS reference week or worked as an artist longer than any other position since January 1, 2010. Previous reports calculated the total number of artists as those in the experienced labour force plus those not in the labour force at the time of the survey but who had worked since January of the previous year. Previous reports also excluded those with $0 earnings, while this report places no restriction on earnings.

The Labour Force Survey, despite having a much smaller sample size than the National Household Survey, does supply a reasonable and historically-comparable estimate of the total number of artists in the employed labour force (including those who are self-employed). LFS historical data are available from 1989 to 2013.

Nine of Statistics Canada's detailed occupation codes are included as "arts occupations" in this report:

  • Actors and comedians.
  • Artisans and craftspersons.
  • Authors and writers.
  • Conductors, composers and arrangers.
  • Dancers.
  • Musicians and singers.
  • Other performers (including circus performers, magicians, models, puppeteers, and other performers not elsewhere classified).
  • Producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations.
  • Visual artists (categorized by Statistics Canada as "Painters, sculptors and other visual artists").

Unless otherwise noted, data in the report are based on the experienced labour force. For the National Household Survey, the experienced labour force "refers to persons who, during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011, were employed [as well as] the unemployed who had last worked for pay or in self-employment in either 2010 or 2011".[4]

There are some key aspects to note about the classification of artists in both the National Household Survey and the Labour Force Survey:

  • Individuals are classified in the occupation in which they worked the most hours during a specific reference week. Artists who spent more time at another occupation than at their artwork during the reference week would be categorized in the other occupation.
  • Individuals who are employed or self-employed are captured in each occupation.
  • Artists who teach in post-secondary, secondary, or elementary schools are classified as teachers or professors and are therefore excluded from the count of artists. Instructors and teachers in some settings (such as private arts schools, academies, and conservatories) are included in the arts occupations.
  • Artists may have worked in any sector of the economy, not just in cultural organizations.
  • The 2011 National Household Survey collected earnings information for 2010, the most recent full calendar year.
  • Income sources include wages and salaries, net self-employment income, investment income, retirement pensions, other income sources, as well as government transfer payments.
  • The employment income statistics in this report (often called "earnings") include wages and salaries as well as net self-employment income.
  • The earnings statistics include amounts received from all employment and self-employment positions in 2010, not just the position at which the respondent worked the most hours during the reference week. In some cases, individuals may have worked in a different occupation in 2010 (the basis for earnings statistics) than the one in which they worked the most hours during the NHS reference week (May 1 to 7, 2011 - the basis for occupational classifications).[5]
  • Artists' project grants would not be included in employment earnings but would be captured in other income sources.
  • Canadians 15 or older are captured in the occupational data.

Choice of nine arts occupations

In this report, the term "artists" is used to describe those Canadians 15 or older classified into nine occupation groups. These occupation groups were identified as artistic in discussions by arts sector representatives prior to the analysis of the 2001 census. These nine occupation groups have been confirmed as priority occupations for the Statistical Insights on the Arts series during discussions between Hill Strategies Research, the Canada Council for the Arts, the Ontario Arts Council, and the Department of Canadian Heritage.[6]

As noted in a 1999 research paper from the Canada Council for the Arts (Artists in the Labour Force), the nine occupations were selected as "artists" on the basis of two key criteria: 1) the artistic nature of the occupations, based on occupation titles and descriptions;[7] and 2) the most common types of professional artists who are eligible to apply to arts councils for funding. Although occupation categories used in Statistics Canada data are not quite as precise and detailed as the types of artists eligible for arts council funding, there are many similarities.

National Household Survey and Labour Force Survey data quality analysis

The now-defunct long-form census provided detailed occupation-related data on artists, including fine detail at the occupational and geographic level and for various socio-demographic groups. The National Household Survey, a new national survey with almost exactly the same content as the previous long-form census, is now a source of data on artist occupations.

The long-form census was a mandatory census of 20% of households, while the 2011 NHS is a voluntary survey of 30% of households. The change to a voluntary survey has an impact on reliability of the data, which affects data analysis and reporting.

A technical report from Hill Strategies Research provides significant details about the National Household Survey and the Labour Force Survey as sources of data regarding the situation of artists in Canada.[8] The main findings of the technical report follow:

  • Neither the National Household Survey (NHS) nor the Labour Force Survey (LFS) are an ideal source of data on artists. However, both provide some useful information.
  • While the NHS is less reliable than the previous long-form census, there is still valuable information in the survey that can be used to examine the working lives of artists.
  • Careful attention should be paid to the reliability of statistics presented from either the LFS or the NHS. Where possible, both sources should be used (and checked against each other) in order to enhance confidence in the data.
  • The NHS has a much larger sample size but a much lower response rate than the LFS. Approximately 4.5 million households across Canada were selected for the National Household Survey. This represents about one third of all households. With a response rate of 68.6%, the actual number of respondents would be approximately 3.1 million. The monthly LFS has a sample size of about 56,000 households and collects labour market information for about 100,000 individuals. More useful data on artists comes from the LFS annual averages, which have a larger sample size than the monthly LFS.
  • In the words of experts interviewed related to the data quality of the NHS, "the risk of the voluntary approach [of the NHS] is that the non-response bias may be high. The people who respond may be different from those who do not." Furthermore, non-response bias is "intrinsically unknowable".
  • There are large changes in many estimates from the 2011 NHS compared with the 2006 long-form census (e.g., specific arts occupations, most provinces, territories, and Census Metropolitan Areas). It is highly improbable that these changes are all "real" differences in the amounts. As such, the two sets of estimates should not generally be compared.
  • Finer-area data on artists will not be available from either the LFS or the NHS.
  • The small sample size of the LFS leads to limited reliability of breakdowns of the number of artists. The LFS does not publish any amount below 1,500 in certain jurisdictions (and below 500 in smaller jurisdictions).
  • The LFS provides the best estimate of trends in the overall number of artists in Canada. The annual averages from the LFS are also timelier than the five-year census or NHS.
  • In the 2006 census, the minimum number for reliable estimates was 40 artists. A useful general rule for the NHS might be to examine estimates of at least 500 to 1,000 artists. No estimates below 1,000 people are provided in this report.
  • Given the results of the data quality analysis, it appears that the NHS might undercount artists compared with the LFS and prior census years.[9]
  • With the above cautions in mind, the NHS could provide most of the data required for the Statistical Insights on the Arts series. As noted by Statistics Canada, the strength of the NHS is in the analysis of detailed data for smaller areas and smaller populations. For example, the NHS is well suited for analyses of labour markets for smaller geographies, specific occupations or industries, age groups or particular populations such as Aboriginal or immigrant populations. The NHS also allows the analysis of the labour market by other relevant socio-demographic variables, for example detailed education, field of study or income.

Specific strengths and limitations in counting artists based on the National Household Survey

Despite many limitations, especially the risk of non-response bias, the 2011 NHS is one of the best available sources of information on artists in Canada.[10] The NHS provides occupation estimates based on a very large population base: the 3.1 million households that completed the survey.

In addition to the risk of non-response bias, the NHS has other limitations for counting artists, related to the nature of the standard occupational classifications, the timing of the NHS, and the focus on the job where an individual worked the most hours.

One gap in the Statistics Canada occupational classification is the fact that there is no distinct category for filmmakers or other media artists. The closest categories are "producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations" (which includes a number of artforms), "film and video camera operators" (not one of the nine arts occupations), and "painters, sculptors, and other visual artists".

Another example of an occupation group that is not a perfect fit for artists is the authors and writers category. This occupation group includes a broader range of writers than simply novelists, poets and other "artistic" writers (but excludes journalists): "Authors and writers plan, research and write books, scripts, storyboards, plays, essays, speeches, manuals, specifications and other non-journalistic articles for publication or presentation. They are employed by advertising agencies, governments, large corporations, private consulting firms, publishing firms, multimedia/new-media companies and other establishments, or they may be self-employed."

Another issue is the timing of the NHS. The classification of occupations is based on the job that respondents spend the most hours at during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2011. This is an "in between" period for many artistic endeavors. For example, many performing arts organizations have seasons that extend from the fall to the spring. These seasons may be finished before the week of May 1, leaving some artists to find other employment during the late spring and summer. Other organizations may have summer seasons that do not begin in early May.

The focus on the job where the individual worked the most hours affects NHS labour force counts. Having multiple jobs is an important facet of the working life of many artists. Some may work more hours at other jobs during the week than at their art. Due to this, NHS-based estimates of artists are likely to be somewhat low.

National Household Survey data have some specific limitations concerning Aboriginal people. NHS enumeration was not permitted or was interrupted before completion on 23 reserves and settlements. In addition, on 13 Northern Ontario reserves, "enumeration was delayed because of natural events (specifically forest fires)".[11]

Organization of the report

Section 2 provides comparisons of the number and income of artists and cultural workers in the provinces and territories. Section 3 provides a brief profile of artists in each province and territory, including an examination of artists by sex, education level, age, self-employment rates, and occupation. Changes in the number of artists and cultural workers between 1989 and 2013 are also highlighted. The appendix provides descriptions of the nine arts occupation groups and a list of the 50 cultural occupations.

 

Section 2: Comparisons between the provinces and territories

Number and concentration of artists

As shown in Figure 1, British Columbia has the largest percentage of its labour force in arts occupations (1.08%). B.C. is the only province where the concentration of artists is greater than 1%. British Columbia has 24,800 artists who spent more time at their art than at any other occupation in May of 2011.

Ontario also has a higher concentration of artists (0.87%) than the Canadian average (0.78%). With 58,100 artists, Ontario has more than twice as many artists as any other province.

The 3,400 artists in Nova Scotia place it third among the ten provinces in terms of the proportion of the labour force in arts occupations (0.72%).

Quebec has the second-largest number of artists (28,200) and is fourth among the provinces in terms of the concentration of artists (0.69%).

In Manitoba, the 4,200 artists represent 0.68% of the provincial labour force.

No other province has over 0.6% of its workforce in arts occupations:

  • Alberta's 11,300 artists comprise 0.54% of the provincial labour force.
  • Saskatchewan's 2,800 artists comprise 0.50% of the province's labour force.
  • In Newfoundland and Labrador, there are approximately 1,200 artists, representing 0.47% of the province's labour force.
  • In New Brunswick, the 1,700 artists represent 0.43% of the province's labour force (0.47%).

No estimates of fewer than 500 artists are provided in this report because of concerns over data reliability. Prince Edward Island and the individual territories (i.e., Yukon, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut) each have fewer than 500 artists.

In the three territories (grouped together to enhance data reliability), the 560 artists represent 0.98% of the labour force. This would rank second among the provinces behind only British Columbia.

In the four Atlantic provinces (i.e., Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick grouped together), the 6,700 artists represent 0.56% of the labour force.

Figure 1

Source: Analysis by Hill Strategies Research based on a 2011 National Household Survey data request. Prince Edward Island and the individual territories are not shown because there are fewer than 500 artists in those jurisdictions.

 

Figure 2 shows the number and percentage of Canada's artists in each region of the country. The 24,800 artists in British Columbia comprise 18% of the national total, higher than the province's 13% share of Canada's overall labour force. The three Prairie provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) account for 13% of all artists and 19% of the overall labour force. Artists in Ontario account for 43% of the national total, higher than the province's 38% share of the overall labour force. Quebec's artists represent 21% of the Canadian total, compared with 23% of the country's overall labour force. Artists in the four Atlantic provinces comprise 5% of all Canadian artists, compared with 7% of the nation's overall labour force. Finally, the three territories account for 0.4% of all artists and 0.3% of the overall labour force.

Figure 2

Source: Analysis by Hill Strategies Research based on a 2011 National Household Survey data request.

Average incomes of artists

In the National Household Survey, individual incomes include:

  • Employment income (or "earnings"), which includes wages and salaries as well as net self-employment income.
  • Government transfer payments (e.g., benefits from Employment Insurance, the Canada Child Tax Benefit, the Canada or Quebec Pension Plan, and Old Age Security).
  • Investment income (including rent received).
  • Retirement pensions.
  • Other money income, which includes artists' project grants, severance pay, alimony, child support, periodic support from other persons not in the household, income from abroad (excluding dividends and interest), non-refundable scholarships, bursaries, fellowships and study grants.[12]

As shown in Figure 3, Quebec and Ontario are the only provinces where artists' average incomes from all sources ($34,000 and $34,900, respectively) are above the Canadian average ($32,800). In Alberta, artists' average incomes ($32,600) are very similar to the national average. In the other provinces, artists' average incomes range from $25,700 (New Brunswick) to $30,800 (Newfoundland and Labrador). Artists' average incomes are $27,400 in the three territories.

Figure 3

Source: Analysis by Hill Strategies Research based on a 2011 National Household Survey data request. All income figures relate to the 2010 calendar year. Prince Edward Island and the individual territories are not shown because there are fewer than 500 artists in those jurisdictions.

Differences in artists' average incomes compared with the overall labour force

Table 1 provides estimates of the average incomes of artists and the overall labour force as well as the income difference in each province and the three territories.

In Canada, the average incomes of artists are 32% lower than the average incomes in the overall labour force. Artists' average incomes are well below the overall labour force average in every province. In Quebec, artists come closest to overall labour force incomes, with a difference of 22%. The income difference is between 30% and 40% in most other provinces, including Newfoundland and Labrador (30%), Ontario (also 30%), Nova Scotia (31%), New Brunswick (36%), Manitoba (37%), and British Columbia (also 37%). The income difference is 40% in Saskatchewan and 44% in Alberta. In the three territories, the income difference for artists is 53%.

Table 1

Median incomes of artists

The examination of median incomes in Figure 4 shows some differences from the above analysis of average incomes.[13] Median incomes are typically lower than average incomes, which is the case in all provinces and territories.

Artists in Ontario ($23,200) and Saskatchewan ($23,000) have median incomes that are above the national average ($21,600), while Alberta ($21,500), Quebec (also $21,500), and Newfoundland and Labrador ($22,000) are very close to the Canadian average. In four other provinces, artists' median incomes are below the national average, ranging from $17,600 (New Brunswick) to $20,600 (Nova Scotia). Artists' median incomes are $20,100 in the three territories.

Figure 4

Source: Analysis by Hill Strategies Research based on a 2011 National Household Survey data request. All income figures relate to the 2010 calendar year. Prince Edward Island and the individual territories are not shown because there are fewer than 500 artists in those jurisdictions.

Average earnings of artists

Note: Employment income (or "earnings") include wages and salaries as well as net self-employment income. The earnings statistics in this report are calculated for those with some earnings (whether above or below $0). These averages should not be compared directly with average personal incomes, which were calculated including those with $0 income. Ten percent of artists had no earnings, compared with 6% of both cultural workers and the overall labour force. These people are excluded from the earnings statistics (which are therefore higher than they would be if those with no earnings were included).

Figure 5 shows that artists' average earnings (from all occupations worked during 2010) are highest in Ontario ($29,500) and Quebec ($29,200). In the other provinces, artists' average earnings range from $22,200 (Manitoba) to $24,000 (B.C.). On average, artists in the three territories earn $25,600.

Figure 5

Source: Analysis by Hill Strategies Research based on a 2011 National Household Survey data request. All earnings figures relate to the 2010 calendar year. Prince Edward Island and the individual territories are not shown because there are fewer than 500 artists in those jurisdictions.

Median earnings of artists

Artists' median earnings, which are less influenced than the average by a small number of individuals reporting very large incomes, are lower than average earnings in all provinces and territories. As shown in Figure 6, artists in Ontario ($17,700), Alberta ($17,600), and Quebec ($17,100) have median earnings that are above the national average ($16,500). Artists' median earnings are below the Canadian average in six other provinces and the three territories.

Figure 6

Source: Analysis by Hill Strategies Research based on a 2011 National Household Survey data request. All income figures relate to the 2010 calendar year. Prince Edward Island and the individual territories are not shown because there are fewer than 500 artists in those jurisdictions.

Cultural workers: Number, concentration, and average incomes

As shown in Table 2, the Yukon has the highest percentage of its labour force in cultural occupations among the provinces and territories (4.62%, well above the national average of 3.82%). There are 970 cultural workers in the Yukon. Cultural workers in the Yukon account for 0.1% of all cultural workers in Canada, equal to the territory's share of the overall labour force.

British Columbia has the second-highest percentage of its labour force in cultural occupations (4.34%). British Columbia has 100,600 cultural workers, representing 15% of all cultural workers in Canada, compared with the province's 13% share of Canada's overall labour force.

Ontario has 4.09% of its labour force in cultural occupations. The 273,300 cultural workers in Ontario account for 41% of the national total, higher than the province's 38% share of the overall labour force.

The percentages in Quebec (3.99%) and Nunavut (3.99%) are also above the Canadian average (3.82%). Quebec's 165,200 cultural workers represent 25% of the Canadian total, compared with 23% of the country's overall labour force. The 510 cultural workers in Nunavut account for 0.1% of all cultural workers in Canada, equal to the territory's share of the overall labour force.

Table 2

The other provinces and territory have less than 3.5% of their labour forces in cultural occupations:

  • The 770 cultural workers in the Northwest Territories comprise 3.33% of the territory's labour force. Cultural workers in the Northwest Territories represent 0.1% of all cultural workers in Canada, equal to the territory's share of the overall labour force.
  • In Manitoba, the 19,800 cultural workers represent 3.16% of the provincial labour force. Manitoba accounts for 2.9% of all cultural workers and 3.6% of the country's overall labour force.
  • The 14,900 cultural workers in Nova Scotia represent 3.14% of the province's labour force. Cultural workers in Nova Scotia comprise 2.2% of all Canadian cultural workers, compared with 2.7% of the nation's overall labour force.
  • Alberta's 63,800 cultural workers comprise 3.05% of the provincial labour force. Alberta accounts for 10% of all cultural workers and 12% of the country's overall labour force.
  • In Newfoundland and Labrador, there are 6,600 cultural workers, representing 2.63% of the provincial labour force. Cultural workers in Newfoundland and Labrador comprise 1.0% of all Canadian cultural workers, compared with 1.4% of the overall labour force.
  • Saskatchewan's 13,800 cultural workers comprise 2.48% of the province's labour force. Saskatchewan is home to 2.1% of the country's cultural workers and 3.2% of the overall labour force.
  • The 1,900 cultural workers on Prince Edward Island represent 2.47% of the Island's labour force. The Island's cultural workers represent 0.3% of all Canadian cultural workers, compared with 0.4% of the overall labour force.
  • In New Brunswick, the 9,500 cultural workers represent 2.44% of the province's labour force. Cultural workers in New Brunswick comprise 1.4% of all cultural workers in the country, compared with 2.2% of the overall labour force.

Average incomes of cultural workers

As shown in Figure 7, Alberta, Ontario, and the three territories are the only jurisdictions where cultural workers' average incomes from all sources are above the Canadian average ($42,100). In Saskatchewan, cultural workers' average incomes ($41,500) are very similar to the national average. In the other provinces, cultural workers' average incomes range from $35,600 (New Brunswick) to $40,700 (Prince Edward Island).

Figure 7

Source: Analysis by Hill Strategies Research based on a 2011 National Household Survey data request. All income figures relate to the 2010 calendar year.

Changes in the number of artists and cultural workers between 1989 and 2013

Because of major methodological changes, data in this report are not comparable to data derived from the census of 2006 or prior years. Background research regarding the methodology of the National Household Survey has indicated that data on artists from the voluntary NHS are substantially different from data from the mandatory long-form census.[14]

The Labour Force Survey, despite having a much smaller sample size than the National Household Survey, does supply a reasonable and historically-comparable estimate of the total number of artists in the employed labour force (including those who are self-employed). The "employed labour force" is a slightly narrower estimate than the "experienced labour force", which is used elsewhere in this report.[15] LFS data on artists are not available for the territories.

Because of the relatively small sample size of the LFS when dealing with smaller population groups (such as artists and cultural workers), there is substantial unexplained year-to-year volatility in estimates based on the LFS. In order to smooth out these irregular fluctuations, this report provides historical estimates using three-year moving averages. LFS historical data are available from 1987 to 2013, and three-year moving averages are provided for 1989 to 2013.

In Canada, there was 56% growth in the number of artists between 1989 and 2013. As shown in Figure 8, this rate of growth, along with the 47% increase in cultural workers, exceeded the growth in the overall labour force (38%).

The growth in the number of artists was greater than overall labour force growth in four of the seven provinces and regions presented in Figure 8. The exceptions are: Alberta, where large growth in the number of artists (58%) was exceeded by very strong growth in the overall labour force (76%); Saskatchewan, where a small decrease in the number of artists (-1%) was lower than growth in cultural workers (24%) and the overall labour force (7%); and Manitoba, where the 23% increase in the number of artists essentially matched the growth in the overall labour force (24%).

The growth in the number of artists was highest in British Columbia (74% increase) and Quebec (73%). There were also strong increases in the number of artists in the Atlantic provinces (60%), Alberta (58%), and Ontario (48%).

Between 1989 and 2013, the number of cultural workers increased the most in British Columbia (79%), Alberta (62%), and Quebec (59%).

Figure 8

Source: Analysis by Hill Strategies Research based on Labour Force Survey 3-year moving averages.

 

Section 3: Artists and cultural workers in each province and territory

This section provides a brief profile of artists in each province and territory. No estimates below 500 are presented in this section because of concerns over data reliability. For some statistics, the Atlantic provinces and the three territories have been grouped together in order to minimize the categories with unreliable figures.

The section starts with a brief synopsis of the situation of artists in the country as a whole, in order to provide comparative information for the provinces and territories.

Canada

There are 136,600 artists in Canada who spent more time at their art than at any other occupation in May of 2011 (which is when the National Household Survey data were collected). The number of artists represents 0.78% of the overall Canadian labour force. One in every 129 Canadian workers is an artist.

There are 671,100 people in cultural occupations, comprising 3.82% of the overall labour force. In other words, one in every 26 Canadian workers has a cultural occupation.

The total individual income of Canada's 136,600 artists averages $32,800, a figure that is 32% less than the overall labour force in Canada ($48,100). Cultural workers have average individual incomes of $42,100 (12% less than the overall labour force).

The average employment income (or "earnings" from wages, salaries, and self-employment income) of artists are $27,600, compared with an average of $45,400 for the overall labour force, a difference of 39%. Cultural workers' average earnings ($39,100) are 14% lower than the average earnings of the overall labour force ($45,400).

Artists Canada

Artists by demographic and employment characteristics

Women represent 51% of artists and 50% of cultural workers but only 48% of the overall labour force.

Artists tend to be older than the overall labour force: there are slightly fewer artists than the overall labour force under 25 years of age (12% vs. 14%) but many more artists 55 and over (25% vs. 19%).

Canada's artists have much higher levels of formal education than the overall labour force. The percentage of artists with a bachelor's degree or higher (44%) is nearly double the rate among the overall labour force (25%).

The rate of self-employment among artists is many times higher than the self-employment rate among the overall labour force. According to the National Household Survey, 51% of artists are self-employed, compared with just 11% of the overall labour force.

Aboriginal artists represent 2.7% of all artists, which is similar to the percentage of Aboriginal people in cultural occupations (2.4%) but slightly lower than the percentage in the overall labour force (3.4%).

Visible minority Canadians represent 13% of all artists, which is lower than the percentage of visible minority people in cultural occupations (15%) and the overall labour force (18%).

Immigrant artists account for about one-fifth of all artists (21%), exactly the same percentage as in cultural occupations and essentially the same as in the overall labour force (22%).

Artists by occupation

Table 3 shows that musicians and singers are the largest of nine occupations included as artists (33,800 musicians and singers, or 25% of all 136,600 artists), followed by authors and writers (25,600, or 19%), producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations (23,000, or 17%), visual artists (15,900, or 12%), artisans and craftspersons (13,100, or 10%), actors and comedians (9,400, or 7%), dancers (8,100, or 6%), other performers (4,400, or 3% - category includes circus performers, magicians, models, puppeteers, and other performers not elsewhere classified), and conductors, composers, and arrangers (3,400, or 2%).

Table 3 also shows that, in two arts occupations, artists have average individual incomes that are below the low-income cutoff for a single person living in a community of 500,000 people or more ($22,600).[16] This is the case for dancers ($17,900) and other performers ($20,900). Two other arts occupations have average incomes that are slightly above the low-income cutoff: musicians and singers ($22,800) and artisans ($23,100). Only the "producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations" group has a higher average income ($55,100) than the overall labour force ($48,100).[17]

The median incomes by arts occupation in Table 3 are, in general, lower than the average incomes. For artists as a group, as well as for six of the nine arts occupations, median incomes are below the low-income cutoff for a single person living in a community of 500,000 people or more ($22,600).

Table 3

Trends in the number of artists between 1989 and 2013

In this report, historical estimates are provided based on Statistics Canada's Labour Force Survey. Because of the relatively small sample size of the LFS when dealing with smaller population groups (such as artists and cultural workers), there is substantial unexplained year-to-year volatility in estimates based on the LFS. In order to smooth out these irregular fluctuations, this report provides historical estimates using three-year moving averages. LFS historical data are available from 1987 to 2013, and three-year moving averages are provided for 1989 to 2013.

As shown in Figure 9, there was a 56% increase in the number of artists in Canada between 1989 and 2013. This is higher than the 38% increase in the overall provincial labour force. The number of cultural workers in Canada increased by 47% between 1989 and 2013.

Figure 9

Source: Analysis by Hill Strategies Research based on Labour Force Survey annual averages.

 

British Columbia

There are 24,800 artists in British Columbia who spent more time at their art than at any other occupation in May of 2011.

The number of artists represents 1.08% of the overall B.C. labour force. British Columbia has the highest concentration of artists among the provinces. One in every 93 B.C. workers is an artist.

The 24,800 artists in British Columbia comprise 18% of the national total, higher than the province's 13% share of Canada's overall labour force.

There are 100,100 people in cultural occupations in B.C., comprising 4.34% of the overall labour force (also highest among the provinces). In other words, one in every 23 B.C. workers has a cultural occupation.

Cultural workers in British Columbia represent 15% of all cultural workers in Canada, compared with the province's 13% share of Canada's overall labour force.

The total individual income of British Columbia's artists averages $29,100, a figure that is 37% lower than the overall labour force average ($46,600). Cultural workers have average individual incomes of $39,500 (15% less than the overall labour force).

In B.C., the average employment income of artists is $24,000, compared with $44,100 for the overall labour force, a difference of 46%. Cultural workers' average earnings ($36,200) are 18% lower than the average earnings of the overall labour force ($44,100).

Artists BC

Artists by demographic and employment characteristics

In British Columbia, women represent 50% of artists but only 48% of both cultural workers and the overall labour force.

Artists tend to be older than the overall provincial labour force: there are slightly fewer artists than the overall labour force under 25 years of age (8% vs. 13%) but many more artists 55 and over (29% vs. 20%).

B.C.'s artists have much higher levels of formal education than the overall provincial labour force. The percentage of artists with a bachelor's degree or higher (43%) is much higher than the rate in the overall labour force (26%).

The rate of self-employment among artists is many times higher than the self-employment rate in the overall labour force: 58% of British Columbia's artists are self-employed, compared with just 13% of the overall provincial labour force.

Aboriginal artists represent 3.8% of all British Columbia artists, which is slightly higher than the percentage of Aboriginal people in cultural occupations (3.1%) and slightly lower than the percentage in the overall provincial labour force (4.4%).

Visible minority residents represent 19% of all artists in B.C., which is lower than the percentage of visible minority people in cultural occupations (22%) and the overall labour force (26%).

Immigrant artists account for 28% of all British Columbia artists, the same percentage as in cultural occupations and essentially the same as in the overall labour force (29%).

Artists by occupation

Table 4 shows that musicians and singers are the largest arts occupation in British Columbia (6,100, or 25% of all 24,800 artists), followed by authors and writers (4,100, or 17%), visual artists (3,700, or 15%), and producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations (3,500, or 14%). The five other arts occupations each account for 11% or less of B.C.'s artists: artisans and craftspersons (2,600, or 11%), actors and comedians (2,100, or 8%), dancers (1,400, or 5%), conductors, composers, and arrangers (630, or 2%), and other performers (610, also 2%).

Table 4 also shows that, in four arts occupations, artists have average individual incomes that are below the low-income cutoff for a single person living in a community of 500,000 people or more ($22,600). This is the case for musicians and singers ($20,200), dancers ($21,400), artisans ($21,700), and actors ($22,200). The average incomes in the five other arts occupations are: $24,200 for other performers; $26,000 for visual artists; $35,200 for conductors, composers, and arrangers; $37,200 for authors and writers; and $50,800 for producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations.[18]

As shown in Table 4, median incomes for B.C. artists ($19,300) as well as for seven of the nine arts occupations are below the low-income cutoff for a single person living in a community of 500,000 people or more ($22,600). The only two exceptions are authors and writers as well as producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations.

Table 4

Trends in the number of artists between 1989 and 2013

As shown in Figure 10, there was a 74% increase in the number of artists in British Columbia between 1989 and 2013 (based on a three-year moving average of Labour Force Survey estimates). This is higher than the 60% increase in the overall provincial labour force. The number of cultural workers in B.C. increased by 79% between 1989 and 2013.[19]

Figure 10

Source: Analysis by Hill Strategies Research based on Labour Force Survey annual averages.

 

Alberta

There are 11,300 artists in Alberta who spent more time at their art than at any other occupation in May of 2011.

The number of artists represents 0.54% of the overall Alberta labour force. One in every 184 Alberta workers is an artist.

Alberta accounts for 8% of all Canadian artists and 12% of the overall labour force.

There are 63,800 people in cultural occupations in Alberta, comprising 3.05% of the overall labour force. In other words, one in every 33 Alberta workers has a cultural occupation. Alberta is home to 10% of Canada's cultural workers and 12% of the country's overall labour force.

The total individual income of Alberta's artists averages $32,600, a figure that is 44% lower than the overall labour force average ($58,200). Cultural workers have average individual incomes of $46,800 (20% less than the overall labour force).

In Alberta, the average employment income of artists is $27,500, compared with $55,600 for the overall labour force, a difference of 51%. Cultural workers' average earnings ($44,200) are 20% lower than the average earnings of the overall labour force ($55,600).

Alberta artists

Artists by demographic and employment characteristics

In Alberta, women represent 61% of artists but only 55% of both cultural workers and 46% of the overall labour force.

Artists tend to be older than the overall provincial labour force: there are more artists 55 and over (24% vs. 18%).

Alberta's artists have much higher levels of formal education than the overall provincial labour force. The percentage of artists with a bachelor's degree or higher (39%) is much higher than the rate in the overall labour force (24%).

The rate of self-employment among artists is many times higher than the self-employment rate in the overall labour force: 52% of Alberta's artists are self-employed, compared with just 11% of the overall provincial labour force.

Visible minority residents represent 10% of all artists in Alberta, which is lower than the percentage of visible minority people in cultural occupations (15%) and the overall labour force (17%).

Immigrant artists account for 17% of all Alberta artists, similar to the percentage in both cultural occupations and the overall labour force (19%).

Artists by occupation

As shown in Table 5, reliable data are available for artists in seven occupation groups in Alberta. Musicians and singers are the largest arts occupation in Alberta (3,500, or 31% of all 11,300 artists), followed by authors and writers (2,100, or 19%), visual artists (1,300, or 12%), producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations (1,200, or 10%), and artisans and craftspersons (1,100, or 10%). The two other arts occupations each account for 8% or less of Alberta's artists: dancers (920, or 8%); and actors and comedians (650, or 6%).

Table 5 also shows that dancers have particularly low average incomes ($20,300). This figure is below the low-income cutoff for a single person living in a community of 500,000 people or more ($22,600). Average incomes are slightly above this level for musicians and singers ($23,000), visual artists ($24,400), and artisans and craftspersons ($26,000). The average incomes in the other arts occupations are $46,500 for authors and writers, $46,900 for actors and comedians, and $53,800 for producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations.[20]

As shown in Table 5, median incomes for Alberta artists ($21,500) as well as for five arts occupations are below the low-income cutoff for a single person living in a community of 500,000 people or more ($22,600). The only two exceptions are authors and writers as well as producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations.

Table 5

Trends in the number of artists between 1989 and 2013

As shown in Figure 11, there was a 58% increase in the number of artists in Alberta between 1989 and 2013 (based on a three-year moving average of Labour Force Survey estimates). This is lower than the 76% increase in the overall provincial labour force. The number of cultural workers in Alberta increased by 62% between 1989 and 2013.[21]

Figure 11

Source: Analysis by Hill Strategies Research based on Labour Force Survey annual averages.

 

Saskatchewan

There are 2,800 artists in Saskatchewan who spent more time at their art than at any other occupation in May of 2011.

The number of artists represents 0.50% of the overall Saskatchewan labour force. One in every 198 Saskatchewan workers is an artist.

The province accounts for 2.0% of all artists in Canada, compared with 3.2% of the overall labour force.

There are 13,800 people in cultural occupations in Saskatchewan, comprising 2.48% of the overall labour force. In other words, one in every 40 Saskatchewan workers has a cultural occupation.

Saskatchewan is home to 2.1% of the country's cultural workers and 3.2% of the overall labour force.

The total individual income of Saskatchewan's artists averages $28,400, a figure that is 40% lower than the overall labour force average ($47,000). Cultural workers have average individual incomes of $41,500 (12% less than the overall labour force).

In Saskatchewan, the average employment income of artists is $22,800, compared with $43,700 for the overall labour force, a difference of 48%. Cultural workers' average earnings ($37,900) are 13% lower than the average earnings of the overall labour force ($43,700).

Saskatchewan artists

Artists by demographic and employment characteristics

In Saskatchewan, women represent 54% of artists and 55% of cultural workers but only 47% of the overall labour force.

Artists tend to be older than the overall provincial labour force: there are more artists 55 and over (29% vs. 21%).

Saskatchewan's artists have much higher levels of formal education than the overall provincial labour force. The percentage of artists with a bachelor's degree or higher (38%) is roughly double the percentage in the overall labour force (18%).

The rate of self-employment among artists is many times higher than the self-employment rate in the overall labour force: 50% of Saskatchewan's artists are self-employed, compared with just 14% of the overall provincial labour force.

No estimates below 500 are presented in this report because of concerns over data reliability. There are fewer than 500 Aboriginal artists, visible minority artists, immigrant artists, and artists in many specific occupations in Saskatchewan.

Artists by occupation

Reliable data are available for artists in two occupation groups. There are 850 musicians and singers in Saskatchewan (30% of all 2,800 artists) and 550 producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations (19%).

The average income of musicians and singers is $19,500, much lower than the average income of producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations ($39,500).[22]

The median income of Saskatchewan artists is $23,000, which is much lower than the average income ($28,400). The median income of musicians and singers is just $15,100, compared with $43,800 for producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations.

Trends in the number of artists between 1989 and 2013

As shown in Figure 12, there was significant fluctuation in the number of artists in Saskatchewan between 1989 and 2013 (based on a three-year moving average of Labour Force Survey estimates). From 1989 to 2013, the number of artists did not change significantly (1% decrease). In contrast, the provincial labour force increased by 17%, and the number of cultural workers increased by 24%[23]

Figure 12

Source: Analysis by Hill Strategies Research based on Labour Force Survey annual averages.

 

Manitoba

In May of 2011, there were 4,200 artists in Manitoba who spent more time at their art than at any other occupation.

The number of artists represents 0.68% of the overall Manitoba labour force. One in every 148 Manitoba workers is an artist.

Artists in Manitoba represent 3.1% of all artists in Canada, compared with 3.6% of the overall labour force.

There are 19,800 cultural workers in Manitoba, comprising 3.16% of the overall provincial labour force. In other words, one in every 32 Manitoba workers has a cultural occupation.

Manitoba accounts for 2.9% of all cultural workers and 3.6% of the country's overall labour force.

The total individual income of Manitoba's artists averages $26,800, a figure that is 37% lower than the overall labour force average ($42,400). Cultural workers have average individual incomes of $37,500 (12% less than the overall labour force).

In Manitoba, the average employment income of artists is $22,200, compared with $40,300 for the overall labour force, a difference of 45%. Cultural workers' average earnings ($34,700) are 14% lower than the average earnings of the overall labour force ($40,300).

Manitoba artists

Artists by demographic and employment characteristics

In Manitoba, women represent 55% of artists and 50% of cultural workers but only 47% of the overall labour force.

Artists tend to be older than the overall provincial labour force: there are many more artists 55 and over (30% vs. 19%).

Manitoba's artists have much higher levels of formal education than the overall provincial labour force. The percentage of artists with a bachelor's degree or higher (39%) is much higher than the rate in the overall labour force (22%).

The rate of self-employment among artists is many times higher than the self-employment rate in the overall labour force: 51% of Manitoba's artists are self-employed, compared with just 10% of the overall provincial labour force.

Immigrant artists account for 13% of all Manitoba artists, which is lower than the percentage in cultural occupations (15%) and the overall labour force (17%).

No estimates of fewer than 500 artists are provided in this report because of concerns over data reliability. There are fewer than 500 Aboriginal artists, visible minority artists, and artists in many specific occupations in Manitoba.

Artists by occupation

As shown in Table 6, reliable data are available for artists in four occupation groups. Musicians and singers are the largest arts occupation in Manitoba (1,400, or 33% of all 4,200 artists), followed by authors and writers (610, or 14%), visual artists (580, or 14%), and producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations (470, or 11%).

Table 6 also shows that visual artists ($22,100) and musicians and singers ($22,400) have average incomes that are below the low-income cutoff for a single person living in a community of 500,000 people or more ($22,600). The average incomes in the two other arts occupations with reliable data are $34,200 for authors and writers and $55,600 for producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations.[24]

As shown in Table 6, median incomes for Manitoba artists as a group ($19,500), musicians and singers ($16,100), and visual artists ($17,100) are below the low-income cutoff for a single person living in a community of 500,000 people or more ($22,600).

Table 6

Trends in the number of artists between 1989 and 2013

As shown in Figure 13, there was a 23% increase in the number of artists in Manitoba between 1989 and 2013 (based on a three-year moving average of Labour Force Survey estimates). This is essentially equal to the 24% increase in the overall provincial labour force and the 22% increase in the number of cultural workers between 1989 and 2013.[25]


Figure 13

Source: Analysis by Hill Strategies Research based on Labour Force Survey annual averages.

 

Ontario

There are 58,100 artists in Ontario who spent more time at their art than at any other occupation in May of 2011. Ontario has twice as many artists as any other province.

The number of artists represents 0.87% of the overall Ontario labour force. One in every 115 Ontario workers is an artist.

Artists in Ontario account for 43% of the national total, higher than the province's 38% share of the overall labour force.

There are 273,300 people in cultural occupations in Ontario, comprising 4.09% of the overall labour force. In other words, one in every 24 Ontario workers has a cultural occupation.

The 273,300 cultural workers in Ontario account for 41% of the national total, higher than the province's 38% share of the overall labour force.

The total individual income of Ontario's artists averages $34,900, a figure that is 30% less than the overall labour force in Ontario ($50,100). Cultural workers have average individual incomes of $44,100 (12% less than the overall labour force).

In Ontario, the average employment income of artists is $29,500, compared with $47,700 for the overall labour force, a difference of 38%. Cultural workers' average earnings ($41,200) are 14% lower than the average earnings of the overall labour force ($47,700).

Ontario artists

Artists by demographic and employment characteristics

In Ontario, women represent 52% of artists and 50% of cultural workers but only 48% of the overall labour force.

Artists tend to be older than the overall provincial labour force: there are slightly fewer artists than the overall labour force under 25 years of age (12% vs. 14%) but many more artists 55 and over (24% vs. 18%).

Ontario's artists have much higher levels of formal education than the overall provincial labour force. The percentage of artists with a bachelor's degree or higher (47%) is much higher than the rate in the overall labour force (28%).

The rate of self-employment among artists is many times higher than the self-employment rate in the overall labour force: 47% of Ontario's artists are self-employed, compared with just 10% of the overall provincial labour force.

Aboriginal artists represent 1.8% of all Ontario artists, which is similar to the percentage of Aboriginal people in cultural occupations (1.6%) and the percentage in the overall provincial labour force (2.0%).

Visible minority residents represent 16% of all artists in Ontario, which is lower than the percentage of visible minority people in cultural occupations (20%) and the overall labour force (24%).

Immigrant artists account for about one-quarter of all Ontario artists (24%), lower than the percentages in cultural occupations (27%) and the overall labour force (31%).

Artists by occupation

Table 7 shows that there are more than 10,000 artists in three arts occupations in Ontario: musicians and singers (13,400, or 23% of all 58,100 artists); authors and writers (12,000, or 21%), and producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations (10,800, or 19%). The six other arts occupations each account for 10% or less of Ontario's artists: visual artists (6,000, or 10%), artisans and craftspersons (4,800, or 8%), actors and comedians (3,900, or 7%), dancers (3,800, or 6%), other performers (1,900, or 3%), and conductors, composers, and arrangers (1,400, or 2%).

Table 7 also shows that, in two arts occupations, artists have average individual incomes that are below the low-income cutoff for a single person living in a community of 500,000 people or more ($22,600). This is the case for dancers ($16,800) and other performers ($18,500). Three other arts occupations have average incomes that are slightly above the low-income cutoff: musicians and singers ($24,100); actors and comedians ($25,000); and artisans ($25,600). Only the producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations group has a higher average income ($55,000) than the overall labour force ($50,100).[26]

The median income of Ontario artists is $23,200, which is much lower than the average income ($34,900). As shown in Table 7, median incomes in six of the nine arts occupations are below the low-income cutoff for a single person living in a community of 500,000 people or more ($22,600).

Table 7

Trends in the number of artists between 1989 and 2013

As shown in Figure 14, there was a 48% increase in the number of artists in Ontario between 1989 and 2013 (based on a three-year moving average of Labour Force Survey estimates). This is higher than the 34% increase in the overall provincial labour force. The number of cultural workers in Ontario increased by 35% between 1989 and 2013.[27]

Figure 14

Source: Analysis by Hill Strategies Research based on Labour Force Survey annual averages.

 

Quebec

In Quebec, there are 28,200 artists who spent more time at their art than at any other occupation in May of 2011.

The number of artists represents 0.69% of the overall Quebec labour force. One in every 145 Quebec workers is an artist.

Quebec's artists represent 21% of the Canadian total, compared with 23% of the country's overall labour force.

There are 165,200 people in cultural occupations in Quebec, comprising 4.04% of the overall labour force. In other words, one in every 25 Quebec workers has a cultural occupation.

Quebec's 165,200 cultural workers represent 25% of the Canadian total, compared with 23% of the country's overall labour force.

The total individual income of Quebec's artists averages $34,000, a figure that is 22% less than the overall labour force in Quebec ($43,400). Cultural workers have average individual incomes of $40,000 (8% less than the overall labour force).

In Quebec, the average employment income of artists is $29,200, compared with $40,200 for the overall labour force, a difference of 27%. Cultural workers' average earnings ($36,900) are 8% lower than the average earnings of the overall labour force ($40,200).

Artists Quebec

Artists by demographic and employment characteristics

Women represent only 44% of Quebec's artists, compared with 49% of cultural workers and 48% of the overall labour force.

Artists tend to be older than the overall provincial labour force: there are fewer artists than the overall labour force under 25 years of age (10% vs. 14%) but more artists 55 and over (21% vs. 18%).

Quebec's artists have much higher levels of formal education than the overall provincial labour force. The percentage of artists with a bachelor's degree or higher (43%) is much higher than the rate in the overall labour force (23%).

The rate of self-employment among artists is many times higher than the self-employment rate in the overall labour force: 52% of Quebec's artists are self-employed, compared with just 10% of the overall provincial labour force.

Visible minority residents represent 7% of all artists in Quebec, which is similar to the percentage of visible minority people in cultural occupations (8%) but lower than the percentage in the overall labour force (10%).

Immigrant artists account for 14% of all Quebec artists, similar to the percentages in cultural occupations (12%) and the overall labour force (13%).

Artists by occupation

Table 8 shows that there are more than 5,000 artists in three arts occupations in Quebec: musicians and singers (6,600, or 23% of all 28,200 artists); producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations (5,500, or 19%); and authors and writers (5,100, or 18%). The six other arts occupations each account for 12% or less of Quebec's artists: visual artists (3,300, or 12%), artisans and craftspersons (2,400, or 9%), actors and comedians (2,000, or 7%), dancers (1,300, or 5%), other performers (1,200, or 4%), and conductors, composers, and arrangers (780, or 3%).

Table 8 also shows that, in three arts occupations, artists have average individual incomes that are below the low-income cutoff for a single person living in a community of 500,000 people or more ($22,600). This is the case for dancers ($15,700), artisans ($20,100), and other performers ($21,900). Two other arts occupations have average incomes that are slightly above the low-income cutoff: visual artists ($22,700) and musicians and singers (also $22,700). The average incomes for the other arts occupations are: $38,000 for actors and comedians; $39,800 for authors and writers; and $59,800 for producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations.[28]

As shown in Table 8, median incomes for Quebec artists ($21,500) as well as for six of the nine arts occupations are below the low-income cutoff for a single person living in a community of 500,000 people or more ($22,600).

Table 8

Trends in the number of artists between 1989 and 2013

As shown in Figure 15, there was a 73% increase in the number of artists in Quebec between 1989 and 2013 (based on a three-year moving average of Labour Force Survey estimates). This is higher than the 30% increase in the overall provincial labour force. The number of cultural workers in Quebec increased by 59% between 1989 and 2013.[29]

Figure 15

Source: Analysis by Hill Strategies Research based on Labour Force Survey annual averages.

 

Atlantic Provinces

There are 6,700 artists in the Atlantic provinces who spent more time at their art than at any other occupation in May of 2011.

The number of artists represents 0.56% of the overall Atlantic labour force. One in every 178 Atlantic workers is an artist. Artists in the four Atlantic provinces comprise 5% of all Canadian artists, compared with 7% of the nation's overall labour force.

Among the four Atlantic provinces, Nova Scotia has the largest number of artists (3,400) and the highest concentration of artists (0.72%). Newfoundland and Labrador's 1,200 artists represent 0.47% of the provincial labour force, and New Brunswick's 1,700 artists comprise 0.43% of the provincial labour force. No estimates of fewer than 500 artists are provided in this report because of concerns over data reliability. Prince Edward Island has fewer than 500 artists.

There are 32,900 people in cultural occupations in the Atlantic provinces, comprising 2.76% of the overall labour force. In other words, one in every 36 Atlantic workers has a cultural occupation. The Atlantic provinces account for 5% of all cultural workers in Canada and 7% of the overall labour force.

Nova Scotia has the largest number of cultural workers (14,900) and the highest concentration of cultural workers (3.14%) among the Atlantic provinces. Newfoundland and Labrador's 6,600 cultural workers comprise 2.63% of the provincial labour force. Prince Edward Island's 1,900 cultural workers represent 2.47% of the Island's labour force, while New Brunswick's 9,500 cultural workers account for 2.44% of the provincial labour force.

Cultural workers in each province represent the following percentages of all cultural workers in Canada:

  • New Brunswick: 1.4% (compared with 2.2% of the overall labour force).
  • Nova Scotia: 2.2% (compared with 2.7% of the overall labour force).
  • Prince Edward Island: 0.3% (compared with 0.4% of the overall labour force).
  • Newfoundland and Labrador: 1.0% (compared with 1.4% of the overall labour force).

The total individual income of Atlantic artists averages $28,500, a figure that is 32% less than the region's overall labour force ($41,600). Cultural workers have average individual incomes of $37,400 (10% less than the overall labour force).

The income statistics in each province are as follows:

  • Newfoundland and Labrador: artists $30,800 (30% less than all workers: $44,100), cultural workers $38,000 (-14%).
  • Prince Edward Island: artists (not reliable), cultural workers $40,700 (7% higher than all Island workers: $38,200).
  • Nova Scotia: artists $29,100 (31% less than all workers: $42,000), cultural workers $37,900 (-10%).
  • New Brunswick: artists $25,700 (36% less than all workers: $40,300), cultural workers $35,600 (-12%).

In the Atlantic provinces, the average employment income of artists is $23,200, compared with $38,100 for the overall labour force, a difference of 39%. Cultural workers' average earnings ($33,700) are 12% lower than the average earnings of the overall labour force ($38,100).

The average earnings of artists and cultural workers in each Atlantic province are:

  • Newfoundland and Labrador: artists $23,800 (41% less than all workers: $40,300), cultural workers $33,800 (-16%).
  • Prince Edward Island: artists (not reliable), cultural workers $30,300 (9% less than all workers: $33,300).
  • Nova Scotia: artists $23,400 (39% less than all workers: $38,300), cultural workers $34,500 (-10%).
  • New Brunswick: artists $23,200 (38% less than all workers: $37,300), cultural workers $33,100 (-11%).

Atlantic artists

Artists by demographic and employment characteristics[30]

In the Atlantic provinces, women represent 54% of artists and 51% of cultural workers but only 48% of the overall labour force.

Artists tend to be older than the overall provincial labour force: there are many more artists 55 and over (31% vs. 20%).

Artists in Atlantic Canada have much higher levels of formal education than the region's overall labour force. The percentage of artists with a bachelor's degree or higher (41%) is almost double the rate in the overall labour force (21%).

The rate of self-employment among Atlantic artists is many times higher than the self-employment rate in the overall labour force: 48% of the region's artists are self-employed, compared with just 7% of the overall labour force.

Immigrant artists account for 11% of all Atlantic artists, which is higher than the percentage of visible minority people in cultural occupations (7%) and the overall labour force (4%).

Artists by occupation

As shown in Table 9, reliable data are available for artists in five occupation groups in the Atlantic provinces. The largest arts occupation groups are musicians and singers (1,800, or 27% of all 6,700 artists), authors and writers (1,100, or 17%), and artisans and craftspersons (1,000, or 16%). The other arts occupations with reliable data are producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations (880, or 13%) and visual artists (750, or 11%).

Table 9 also shows that Atlantic visual artists have an average individual income ($19,500) that is at the low-income cutoff for a single person living in a community with 100,000 to 500,000 residents (also $19,500). Artisans and craftspersons have an average income ($20,600) that is slightly above the low-income cutoff. The average incomes for the other arts occupation groups are: $23,200 for musicians and singers; $39,100 for authors and writers; and $54,000 for producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations.[31]

The median income of the 6,700 Atlantic artists is $19,600, which is very close to the low-income cutoff for a single person living in a community with 100,000 to 500,000 residents ($19,500). As shown in Table 9, median incomes in three arts occupations are below this low-income cutoff: visual artists ($12,800), artisans ($16,700), and musicians and singers ($16,700).

 

Table 9

Trends in the number of artists between 1989 and 2013

As shown in Figure 16, there was a 60% increase in the number of artists in the Atlantic provinces between 1989 and 2013 (based on a three-year moving average of Labour Force Survey estimates). This is much higher than the 21% increase in the overall provincial labour force. The number of cultural workers in the region increased by 38% between 1989 and 2013.[32]


Figure 16

Source: Analysis by Hill Strategies Research based on Labour Force Survey annual averages.

 

Territories

There are 560 artists in the three territories who spent more time at their art than at any other occupation in May of 2011.

The number of artists represents 0.98% of the territories' combined labour forces. One in every 102 territorial workers is an artist.

The three territories account for 0.4% of Canada's artists and 0.3% of the overall labour force.

No estimates of fewer than 500 artists are provided in this report because of concerns over data reliability. Data on artists in the individual territories are not provided because there are fewer than 500 artists in each territory. For the same reason, demographic and employment information (as well as data by arts occupation) are not provided. LFS data on artists are not available for the territories. As such, trends in the number of artists over time are not available.

There are 2,300 people in cultural occupations in the three territories, comprising 3.96% of the overall labour force. In other words, one in every 25 territorial workers has a cultural occupation.

Of the three territories, the Yukon has the highest concentration of cultural workers (4.62%, 970 workers). In Nunavut, cultural workers represent 3.99% of the overall labour force (510 cultural workers). Cultural workers account for 3.33% of the Northwest Territories' labour force (770 cultural workers).

Combined, the three territories account for 0.3% of Canada's cultural workers and the same share of the overall labour force. Cultural workers in each individual territory account for 0.1% of all cultural workers in Canada, equal to each territory's share of the overall labour force.

The average individual income of artists in the three territories is $27,400, a figure that is 53% less than the overall labour force average ($58,800).

Cultural workers have average individual incomes of $51,300 (13% less than the overall labour force). The average incomes of cultural workers in each territory are as follows:

  • Yukon: $43,800, 16% less than all workers ($51,900).
  • Northwest Territories: $60,000 (8% less than all workers: $65,100).
  • Nunavut: $52,500 (10% less than all workers: $58,400).

In the three territories, the average employment income of artists is $25,600, compared with $55,600 for the overall labour force, a difference of 54%. Cultural workers' average earnings ($49,700) are 11% lower than the average earnings of the overall labour force ($55,600).

Artists Territories

 

Appendix: Description of arts occupations and list of cultural occupations

Appendix 1

Appendix 2

 

50 cultural occupations

Artist occupations

  • F021 Authors and Writers
  • F031 Producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations
  • F032 Conductors, composers, and arrangers
  • F033 Musicians and singers
  • F034 Dancers
  • F035 Actors and comedians
  • F036 Painters, sculptors, and other visual artists
  • F132 Other performers
  • F144 Artisans and craftspersons

Cultural occupations related to broadcasting, film & video, sound recording, performing arts, and publishing

  • F022 Editors
  • F023 Journalists
  • F122 Film and video camera operators
  • F123 Graphic arts technicians
  • F124 Broadcast technicians
  • F125 Audio and video recording technicians
  • F126 Other technical and co-ordinating occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting, and the performing arts
  • F127 Support occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting, and the performing arts
  • F131 Announcers and other broadcasters
  • A342 Managers - publishing, motion pictures, broadcasting, and performing arts

Cultural occupations related to libraries, archives, and heritage

  • A341 Library, archive, museum, and art gallery managers
  • B513 Records management technicians
  • B551 Library assistants and clerks
  • B552 Correspondence, publication, and regulatory clerks
  • F011 Librarians
  • F012 Conservators and curators
  • F013 Archivists
  • F111 Library and archive technicians and assistants
  • F112 Technical occupations related to museums and art galleries

Cultural occupations related to architecture

  • C051 Architects
  • C052 Landscape architects
  • C053 Urban and land use planners
  • C125 Landscape and horticulture technicians and specialists
  • C151 Architectural technologists and technicians

Cultural occupations related to design

  • C075 Web designers and developers
  • C152 Industrial designers
  • C153 Drafting technologists and technicians
  • F141 Graphic designers and illustrators
  • F142 Interior designers and interior decorators
  • F143 Theatre, fashion, exhibit, and other creative designers
  • F145 Patternmakers, textile, leather, and fur products

Cultural occupations related to printing

  • B523 Desktop publishing operators and related occupations
  • H018 Supervisors, printing and related occupations
  • H521 Printing press operators
  • J181 Plateless printing equipment operators
  • J182 Camera, platemaking, and other pre-press occupations
  • J183 Binding and finishing machine operators

Cultural occupations not included elsewhere (natural heritage, communications, photography)

  • C124 Conservation and fishery officers
  • F024 Professional occupations in public relations and communications
  • F121 Photographers
  • J184 Photographic and film processors

 



[1] The "overall labour force" refers to the experienced labour force, which includes all those who worked during the NHS reference week or had worked for pay or in self-employment since January 1, 2010.

[2] Readers should be aware that the estimates of cultural workers in this report differ conceptually from national estimates provided by the Culture Satellite Account (CSA). The estimates in this report are based on occupations, while the estimates in the CSA report are based on culture industries and culture products. In addition to using a different methodology, the CSA estimates have a different base year and use different data sources.

[3] A technical report from Hill Strategies Research provides significant details about the National Household Survey and the Labour Force Survey as sources of data regarding the situation of artists in Canada. Data sources on artists in Canada: Methodological details regarding the National Household Survey and the Labour Force Survey, Hill Strategies Research Inc., May 2014, http://www.hillstrategies.com/content/data-sources-artists-canada.

[4] NHS Dictionary, Statistics Canada, http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/ref/dict/pop031-eng.cfm, consulted August 6, 2014.

[5] For more information about labour force measurements in the National Household Survey, visit http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/ref/guides/99-012-x/99-012-x2011007-eng.cfm.

[6] Other occupation groups, such as photographers, were also considered for inclusion in the analysis. However, further investigation found that a large majority of photographers captured by the census work as commercial photographers, which would limit the usefulness of including photographers in the analysis.

[7] See Appendix 1 for descriptions of the nine arts occupations and a list of the 50 cultural occupations, drawn from the 2006 National Occupation Classification (NOC), http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/bsolc/olc-cel/olc-cel?catno=12-583-X&lang=eng.

[8] Data sources on artists in Canada: Methodological details regarding the National Household Survey and the Labour Force Survey, Hill Strategies Research Inc., May 2014, http://www.hillstrategies.com/content/data-sources-artists-canada.

[9] The 2011 NHS estimate of artists in the employed labour force (128,300) is 3% lower than, but still within the margin of error of, the 2011 LFS estimate (132,300).

[10] Membership in artist associations is another possible source of data. However, this would not provide complete information as only some artists belong to associations. In addition, some artists who belong to an association may not be active as an artist in a specific year.

[11] NHS Aboriginal Population Profile: About the data, Statistics Canada, 2013, http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/dp-pd/aprof/help-aide/about-apropos.cfm?Lang=E, retrieved on February 26, 2014.

[12] NHS Dictionary, Statistics Canada, http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/ref/dict/pop107-eng.cfm, retrieved March 7, 2014.

[13] The median is a measure of the income of a "typical" worker in various occupations. Half of individuals have incomes that are less than the median value, while the other half has incomes greater than the median. The median is less influenced than the average (more appropriately known as the "mean") by extreme observations, such as a few individuals reporting very large incomes. As a consequence, median incomes are typically lower than average incomes.

[14] A technical report from Hill Strategies Research provides significant details about the National Household Survey and the Labour Force Survey as sources of data regarding the situation of artists in Canada. Data sources on artists in Canada: Methodological details regarding the National Household Survey and the Labour Force Survey, Hill Strategies Research Inc., May 2014, http://www.hillstrategies.com/content/data-sources-artists-canada.

[15] The 2011 National Household Survey estimate of artists in the employed labour force (128,300) is 3% lower than, but still within the margin of error of, the 2011 Labour Force Survey estimate (132,300).

[16] Information on low incomes was obtained from Low Income Lines, 2010-2011, Statistics Canada, June 2013, http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75f0002m/75f0002m2012002-eng.htm, retrieved February 10, 2014.

[17] Readers should be aware that this category includes producers, who might be considered cultural managers rather than artists per se. However, because it is not possible to separate producers from artists in this occupation group, the entire occupation group is included in this report.

[18] Readers should be aware that this category includes producers, who might be considered cultural managers rather than artists per se. However, because it is not possible to separate producers from artists in this occupation group, the entire occupation group is included in this report.

[19] In this report, historical estimates are provided based on Statistics Canada's Labour Force Survey. Because of the relatively small sample size of the LFS when dealing with smaller population groups (such as artists and cultural workers), there is substantial unexplained year-to-year volatility in estimates based on the LFS. In order to smooth out these irregular fluctuations, this report provides historical estimates using three-year moving averages. LFS historical data are available from 1987 to 2013, and three-year moving averages are provided for 1989 to 2013.

[20] Readers should be aware that this category includes producers, who might be considered cultural managers rather than artists per se. However, because it is not possible to separate producers from artists in this occupation group, the entire occupation group is included in this report.

[21] In this report, historical estimates are provided based on Statistics Canada's Labour Force Survey. Because of the relatively small sample size of the LFS when dealing with smaller population groups (such as artists and cultural workers), there is substantial unexplained year-to-year volatility in estimates based on the LFS. In order to smooth out these irregular fluctuations, this report provides historical estimates using three-year moving averages. LFS historical data are available from 1987 to 2013, and three-year moving averages are provided for 1989 to 2013.

[22] Readers should be aware that this category includes producers, who might be considered cultural managers rather than artists per se. However, because it is not possible to separate producers from artists in this occupation group, the entire occupation group is included in this report.

[23] In this report, historical estimates are provided based on Statistics Canada's Labour Force Survey. Because of the relatively small sample size of the LFS when dealing with smaller population groups (such as artists and cultural workers), there is substantial unexplained year-to-year volatility in estimates based on the LFS. In order to smooth out these irregular fluctuations, this report provides historical estimates using three-year moving averages. LFS historical data are available from 1987 to 2013, and three-year moving averages are provided for 1989 to 2013.

[24] Readers should be aware that this category includes producers, who might be considered cultural managers rather than artists per se. However, because it is not possible to separate producers from artists in this occupation group, the entire occupation group is included in this report.

[25] In this report, historical estimates are provided based on Statistics Canada's Labour Force Survey. Because of the relatively small sample size of the LFS when dealing with smaller population groups (such as artists and cultural workers), there is substantial unexplained year-to-year volatility in estimates based on the LFS. In order to smooth out these irregular fluctuations, this report provides historical estimates using three-year moving averages. LFS historical data are available from 1987 to 2013, and three-year moving averages are provided for 1989 to 2013.

[26] Readers should be aware that this category includes producers, who might be considered cultural managers rather than artists per se. However, because it is not possible to separate producers from artists in this occupation group, the entire occupation group is included in this report.

[27] In this report, historical estimates are provided based on Statistics Canada's Labour Force Survey. Because of the relatively small sample size of the LFS when dealing with smaller population groups (such as artists and cultural workers), there is substantial unexplained year-to-year volatility in estimates based on the LFS. In order to smooth out these irregular fluctuations, this report provides historical estimates using three-year moving averages. LFS historical data are available from 1987 to 2013, and three-year moving averages are provided for 1989 to 2013.

[28] Readers should be aware that this category includes producers, who might be considered cultural managers rather than artists per se. However, because it is not possible to separate producers from artists in this occupation group, the entire occupation group is included in this report.

[29] In this report, historical estimates are provided based on Statistics Canada's Labour Force Survey. Because of the relatively small sample size of the LFS when dealing with smaller population groups (such as artists and cultural workers), there is substantial unexplained year-to-year volatility in estimates based on the LFS. In order to smooth out these irregular fluctuations, this report provides historical estimates using three-year moving averages. LFS historical data are available from 1987 to 2013, and three-year moving averages are provided for 1989 to 2013.

[30] No estimates below 500 are presented in this section because of concerns over data reliability.

[31] Readers should be aware that this category includes producers, who might be considered cultural managers rather than artists per se. However, because it is not possible to separate producers from artists in this occupation group, the entire occupation group is included in this report.

[32] In this report, historical estimates are provided based on Statistics Canada's Labour Force Survey. Because of the relatively small sample size of the LFS when dealing with smaller population groups (such as artists and cultural workers), there is substantial unexplained year-to-year volatility in estimates based on the LFS. In order to smooth out these irregular fluctuations, this report provides historical estimates using three-year moving averages. LFS historical data are available from 1987 to 2013, and three-year moving averages are provided for 1989 to 2013.

 

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