Trade of culture and sport products, 2016
IssueTrade and tourism in the arts and culture
Developed “as an extension of the Canadian Culture Satellite Account and the Provincial and Territorial Culture Satellite Indicators”, these estimates of trade in arts, culture, and heritage products show that culture exports ($16.0 billion) represented 2.5% of all exports from Canada in 2016. Imports of culture products were $20.8 billion, or 3.1% of all imports to Canada in 2016. The report notes that exports of cultural goods and services accounted for 30% of the overall gross domestic product of culture in Canada in 2016.
Culture exports from Ontario ($9.2 billion) represented 58% of all culture exports, followed by Quebec ($3.0 billion, or 19%) and British Columbia ($2.1 billion, or 13%). Collectively, these three provinces accounted for 89% of all culture exports from Canada.
Among culture products, crafts accounted for the highest proportion of exports ($5.1 billion, or 32%). As noted in the report, “the crafts sub-domain includes various manufactured products that originate from creative artistic activities. It includes items such as jewelry, pottery, and knives. However, due to measurement limitations estimates of trade for the craft sub-domain may be overstated.” Other culture products with substantial exports include film and video ($2.1 billion, or 13%), interactive media ($1.1 billion, or 7%), performing arts ($937 million, or 6%), and design ($899 million, or 6%). Crafts also accounted for the largest share of culture imports ($5.9 billion, or 28%), followed by books ($2.0 billion, or 10%) and performing arts ($1.8 billion, or 9%).
The United States was by far the largest trading partner for culture products in 2016, accounting for 63% of all exports ($10.1 billion) and 66% of all imports ($13.6 billion). The second-largest trading partner for culture products was the European Union, representing 12% of all exports ($1.9 billion) and 11% of all imports ($2.2 billion).
Canada experienced a substantial trade deficit related to culture in 2016, with culture exports ($16.0 billion) being 23% smaller than imports ($20.8 billion). Between 2010 and 2016, culture exports increased by 43%, while culture imports grew by 33%.
The study also provides an estimate of international trade in sport products. Sport exports were $1.8 billion in 2016, while sports imports were $3.2 billion. Sport products accounted for 0.3% of all Canadian exports and 0.5% of all imports. The trade deficit in sport products (43%) was proportionally larger than the deficit in culture products (23%).
Within Canada, the study estimated that interprovincial trade in culture products amounted to $17.1 billion in 2014, or 4.6% of total interprovincial trade. In comparison, “interprovincial trade for sport products totalled $1.6 billion or 0.4% of total interprovincial trade in 2014”.