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Artists in Canada’s Provinces and Territories in 2016 (With Summary Information about Cultural Workers)

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November 27, 201927 November 2019

Executive Summary

Based on the 2016 census, this report examines the number and incomes of artists in each of Canada’s provinces and territories. The report also provides a brief summary of the situation of cultural workers in each province and territory.

A previous report in the Statistical Insights on the Arts series found that there are 158,100 artists in Canada, representing almost 1% of the overall Canadian labour force (0.87%). In this report, this percentage is referred to as the “concentration of artists”.

Nine detailed occupation codes are included in the count of artists. From largest to smallest in Canada as a whole, the arts occupations are:

  • Musicians and singers: 35,000 (22% of all artists)
  • Authors and writers: 27,700 (18%)
  • Producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations: 27,600 (17%)
  • Visual artists: 21,100 (13%)
  • Artisans and craftspeople: 14,700 (9%)
  • Actors and comedians: 11,400 (7%)
  • Dancers: 10,100 (6%)
  • Other performers: 6,300 (4%)[1]
  • Conductors, composers, and arrangers: 4,200 (3%)

There are 726,600 cultural workers in Canada, including heritage occupations (such as librarians, museum workers, and archivists), cultural occupations (such as designers, editors, and architects), and the nine arts occupations. Cultural workers account for 4% of the overall labour force (also called the “concentration of cultural workers”).

Artists and cultural workers in the provinces and territories

In order to better understand the working lives of artists and cultural workers in each province and territory, the following factors are examined in the report:

  • The overall number of artists and cultural workers
  • Artists by occupation
  • Demographic information on artists, such as gender, education, age, as well as whether artists are Indigenous or members of racialized groups[2]
  • Self-employment rates of artists
  • Total incomes, employment incomes, and household incomes of artists and cultural workers
  • The industry sectors in which artists work

Some key findings of the analysis include:

  • With 66,000 artists who spent more time at their art than at any other occupation in May of 2016, Ontario accounts for 42% of Canada’s artists, almost twice as many as any other province.
  • Musicians and singers represent the largest arts occupation in nine provinces. In Quebec, the largest arts occupation is producers, directors, and choreographers.
  • British Columbia has the highest concentration of artists (1.18%) and the second-highest concentration of cultural workers (4.7%) in the country.
  • Nunavut has the second-highest concentration of artists in the country (1.17%). Ninety-one percent are Indigenous (by far the largest proportion in the country), and 71% are artisans and craftspeople.
  • Yukon has the third-highest concentration of artists (1.14%) and the highest concentration of cultural workers (5.3%) in the country.
  • Women represent 52% of Canadian artists and a majority of artists in all provinces and territories except Quebec (48%) and Nunavut (26%). The highest proportions of female artists are in Saskatchewan (62%) and Alberta (60%).
  • The proportion of artists with at least a bachelor’s degree is highest in Nova Scotia and Yukon (each 51%), followed by Ontario (50%) and Newfoundland and Labrador (49%).
  • The percentage of artists who are 45 years of age or older is highest in Yukon (63%), followed by the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, and Nova Scotia (each 54%).
  • Members of racialized groups represent a higher proportion of artists in British Columbia (20%) and Ontario (18%) than in any other province.
  • Self-employment rates are highest among artists in the three territories: Yukon (69%), Nunavut (66%), and the Northwest Territories (58%). Among the provinces, self-employment rates are highest in British Columbia and Nova Scotia (each 56%).
  • Among the provinces, Quebec has the smallest difference between the median income of artists and all workers (-35%) as well as the smallest difference between cultural workers and all workers (-1%).
  • Artists in Nunavut have the lowest median incomes ($10,700) of any jurisdiction in Canada.

About this report

After an introduction, the second section of the full report compares the number and median incomes of artists and cultural workers between the provinces and territories, while the third section provides profile information about artists and cultural workers in each province and territory. Additional data are provided in an appendix, and further details are provided in supplemental tables available below.

The report is based on a custom data request from the 2016 long-form census, which classifies people in the occupation in which they worked the most hours during the census reference week (May 1 to 7, 2016).

It is also important to note that, due to major changes in methods between the 2011 National Household Survey and the 2016 census, data in this report are not comparable to previous reports in the Statistical Insights on the Arts series. Reports based on the 2001 and 2006 long-form census are also not comparable, given a change in the base population used in the calculations of artists and cultural workers.[3]

Some aspects of the census have particular relevance in capturing the working lives of artists:

  • Artists who spent more time at another occupation than at their artwork during the reference week would be classified in the other occupation. The census does not capture information about secondary occupations.
  • Each occupation includes individuals who are employed or self-employed.
  • Artists who teach in post-secondary, secondary, or elementary schools are classified as professors or teachers, not in artistic occupations. Instructors and teachers in some settings (such as private arts schools, academies, and conservatories) are included as “artists”.

Full methodological notes can be found in Appendix 2.

Subsequent reports will examine demographic differences in the situations of artists as well as artists in Canadian municipalities.

The Statistical Insights on the Arts series, created by Hill Strategies Research in 2002, is co-funded by the Canada Council for the Arts, the Department of Canadian Heritage, and the Ontario Arts Council as part of their shared commitment to making arts research available to inform the work of Canada’s arts community and inform the general public about Canada’s arts sector.

 

Introduction

Using custom data that Hill Strategies requested from Statistics Canada’s 2016 long-form census, this report examines information about artists in each province and territory who worked at their art more than any other occupation in May of 2016.

In order to better understand the working lives of artists and cultural workers in each province and territory, the following factors are examined in the report:

  • The overall number of artists and cultural workers
  • Artists by occupation
  • Demographic information on artists, such as gender, education, age, as well as whether artists are Indigenous or members of racialized groups[4]
  • Self-employment rates of artists
  • Total incomes, employment incomes, and household incomes of artists and cultural workers
  • The industry sectors in which artists work[5]

Additional data are provided in an appendix, as are full methodological notes. More detailed data are provided in supplemental tables available at the bottom of this page.

A previous report in the Statistical Insights on the Arts series found that there are 158,100 artists in Canada, representing almost 1% of the overall Canadian labour force (0.87%). In this report, this percentage is referred to as the “concentration of artists”.

Nine detailed occupation codes are included in the count of artists. From largest to smallest in Canada as a whole, the arts occupations are:

  • Musicians and singers: 35,000 (22% of all artists)
  • Authors and writers: 27,700 (18%)
  • Producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations: 27,600 (17%)
  • Visual artists: 21,100 (13%)
  • Artisans and craftspeople: 14,700 (9%)
  • Actors and comedians: 11,400 (7%)
  • Dancers: 10,100 (6%)
  • Other performers: 6,300 (4%)[6]
  • Conductors, composers, and arrangers: 4,200 (3%)

There are 726,600 cultural workers in Canada, including heritage occupations (such as librarians, museum workers, and archivists), cultural occupations (such as designers, editors, and architects), and the nine arts occupations. Cultural workers account for 4% of the overall labour force (also called the “concentration of cultural workers”).

 

Section 2: Provincial and territorial comparisons

This section compares the number and median incomes of artists and cultural workers between the provinces and territories, while the subsequent section provides profile information about artists and cultural workers in each province and territory.

Number of artists

Table 1 provides the number of artists in each province and territory as well as each jurisdiction’s proportion of all Canadian artists.

With 66,000 artists who spent more time at their art than at any other occupation in May of 2016, Ontario accounts for 42% of Canada’s artists, almost twice as many as any other province.

In the other provinces:

  • British Columbia’s 28,700 artists represent 18% of all artists in Canada.
  • The 13,300 artists in Alberta represent 8.4% of all artists nationwide.
  • Saskatchewan’s 3,000 artists account for 2% of all artists in Canada.
  • Manitoba’s 4,300 artists represent about 3% of all artists in Canada.
  • The 34,800 artists in Quebec represent 22% of all artists nationwide.
  • In New Brunswick, the 1,800 artists account for just over 1% of all artists in Canada.
  • Nova Scotia’s 3,700 artists represent 2.4% of all artists in Canada.
  • The 540 artists in Prince Edward Island represent 0.3% of all artists nationwide.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador’s 1,400 artists account for about 1% of all artists in Canada.
  • Combined, the three territories are home to 550 artists, or 0.3% of all artists nationwide. Individually, each territory accounts for 0.1% or 0.2% of all Canadian artists (250 artists in Yukon, 120 in the Northwest Territories, and 180 in Nunavut).

Table 1: Artists in the provinces and territories, 2016

Jurisdiction Artists % of all artists in Canada
Canada 158,100 100%
British Columbia 28,700 18.1%
Alberta 13,300 8.4%
Saskatchewan 3,000 1.9%
Manitoba 4,300 2.7%
Ontario 66,000 41.7%
Quebec 34,800 22.0%
New Brunswick 1,800 1.2%
Nova Scotia 3,700 2.4%
Prince Edward Island 540 0.3%
Newfoundland and Labrador 1,400 0.9%
Yukon 250 0.2%
Northwest Territories 120 0.1%
Nunavut 180 0.1%
Source: 2016 census custom data request.

 

Concentration of artists

As shown in Figure 1, four provinces and territories (BC, Nunavut, Yukon, and Ontario) have a larger percentage of their overall labour forces in arts occupations than the Canadian average of 0.87%. This proportion is also called the concentration of artists.

From west to east to north, some key statistics on artists in each province and territory are:

  • British Columbia’s 28,700 artists represent the highest concentration of artists in Canada (1.18%).
  • Alberta’s 13,300 artists comprise 0.59% of the provincial labour force.
  • In Saskatchewan, the 3,000 artists account for 0.52% of the province’s labour force.
  • In Manitoba, the 4,300 artists represent 0.67% of the provincial labour force.
  • Ontario’s 66,000 artists represent a higher proportion of the province’s labour force (0.95%) than the Canadian average (0.87%).
  • Quebec’s 34,800 artists account for 0.84% of the overall labour force.
  • In New Brunswick, the 1,800 artists represent 0.49% of the province’s labour force.
  • The 3,700 artists in Nova Scotia represent 0.80% of the province’s labour force.
  • In Prince Edward Island, there are 540 artists, representing 0.70% of the province’s labour force.
  • There are 1,400 artists in Newfoundland and Labrador, representing 0.55% of the province’s labour force.
  • Yukon’s 250 artists represent 1.14% of the territory’s overall labour force, the third-highest level in the country.
  • In the Northwest Territories, there are approximately 120 artists, representing 0.52% of the territory’s labour force.
  • With 180 artists, Nunavut has a very high concentration of artists (1.17%).

Figure 1: Concentration of artists by province and territory

Median incomes of artists

As shown in Figure 2, artists in Yukon have the highest median incomes in the country ($32,900). The income statistics include all sources of individuals’ incomes, not just their artistic work (which is not broken out separately in census data).[7]

Artists in the Northwest Territories ($27,200) and four provinces also have median incomes that are above the median for all Canadian artists ($24,300): Quebec ($26,800), Alberta ($25,800), Saskatchewan ($25,600), and Newfoundland and Labrador ($24,700).

Artists in the seven other provinces and territories have median incomes below the national average: New Brunswick ($24,200), Ontario ($23,500), Manitoba ($23,300), British Columbia ($22,700), Nova Scotia ($21,500), Prince Edward Island ($21,100), and Nunavut ($10,700).

Figure 2: Median incomes of artists by province and territory

 

Number of cultural workers

Table 2 presents the number and concentration of cultural workers in each province and territory (from west to east to north). Fifty occupation groups are counted as cultural workers, including heritage occupations (such as librarians, museum workers, and archivists), cultural occupations (such as designers, editors, and architects), and the nine arts occupations.[8]

Some key statistics on cultural workers in each province and territory are:

  • British Columbia’s 114,200 cultural workers represent 16% of all cultural workers in Canada and 4.7% of the provincial labour force (the second-highest percentage in Canada).
  • The 68,500 cultural workers in Alberta account for 9% of all cultural workers nationwide and 3.0% of the provincial labour force.
  • Saskatchewan’s 14,100 cultural workers represent 2% of all cultural workers in Canada and 2.4% of the province’s labour force.
  • Manitoba’s 19,600 cultural workers account for 3% of all cultural workers in Canada and 3.0% of the provincial labour force.
  • The 296,700 cultural workers in Ontario represent 41% of the national total, higher than the province’s 38% share of the overall national labour force. Ontario has 4.3% of its labour force in cultural occupations.
  • The 179,400 cultural workers in Quebec account for 25% of all cultural workers in Canada and 4.3% of the provincial labour force, the third-highest level in Canada.
  • In New Brunswick, the 8,500 cultural workers represent just over 1% of all cultural workers in Canada and 2.3% of the province’s labour force.
  • Nova Scotia’s 15,200 cultural workers represent 2.1% of all cultural workers in Canada and 3.3% of the provincial labour force.
  • The 2,000 cultural workers in Prince Edward Island account for 0.3% of all cultural workers nationwide and 2.6% of the Island’s labour force.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador’s 5,900 cultural workers represent just under 1% of all cultural workers in Canada and 2.3% of the province’s labour force.
  • Combined, the three territories are home to 2,600 cultural workers, or 0.3% of all cultural workers nationwide and 4.3% of the territories’ combined labour forces.
  • With 1,100 cultural workers (0.2% of the national total), Yukon has the highest percentage of its labour force in cultural occupations (5.3%, well above the national average of 4.0%).
  • The Northwest Territories’ 900 cultural workers represent 0.1% of all cultural workers in Canada and 3.8% of the territorial labour force.
  • The 530 cultural workers in Nunavut account for 0.1% of all cultural workers nationwide and 3.5% of the territorial labour force.

Table 2: Cultural workers in the provinces and territories, 2016

Jurisdiction Cultural workers % of all workers
Canada 726,600 4.0%
British Columbia 114,200 4.7%
Alberta 68,500 3.0%
Saskatchewan 14,100 2.4%
Manitoba 19,600 3.0%
Ontario 296,700 4.3%
Quebec 179,400 4.3%
New Brunswick 8,500 2.3%
Nova Scotia 15,200 3.3%
Prince Edward Island 2,000 2.6%
Newfoundland and Labrador 5,900 2.3%
Yukon 1,100 5.3%
Northwest Territories 900 3.8%
Nunavut 530 3.5%
Source: 2016 census custom data request.

Median incomes of cultural workers

As shown in Figure 3, cultural workers in the Northwest Territories have the highest median incomes ($70,800), followed by those in Nunavut ($55,400).

Cultural workers in five other jurisdictions also have median incomes that are above or equal to the median for all Canadian cultural workers ($41,000): Yukon ($48,900), Alberta ($47,100), Saskatchewan ($42,200), Newfoundland and Labrador ($41,200), and Quebec ($41,000).

Cultural workers in the six other provinces have median incomes below the national average: Ontario ($40,900), Manitoba ($39,300), British Columbia ($38,900), New Brunswick ($37,100), Prince Edward Island ($36,800), and Nova Scotia ($35,700).

Figure 3: Median incomes of cultural workers by province and territory

 

Section 3: Provincial and territorial profiles

The profile sections that follow contain key facts about the demographics, employment characteristics, and incomes of artists in each province and territory. The provinces are presented from west to east, followed by the three territories.[9]

This report focuses on median incomes, which are believed to provide a better indication of the typical situation of artists than the average (i.e., the “mean”), which is more strongly affected by a few individuals with very high incomes. Information on average incomes, as well as other statistics for each province and territory, is provided in detailed tables appended to the report. Further details are provided in supplemental tables available below.

Readers are reminded that census statistics capture people who spent more time at their art than at any other occupation in May of 2016. Full methodological notes can be found in Appendix 2.

Profile of British Columbia artists

There are 28,700 artists in British Columbia, representing 18% of all Canadian artists (higher than the province’s 13% share of the overall national labour force). With 1.18% of the province’s labour force in arts occupations, British Columbia has the highest concentration of artists in the country.

Among B.C. artists:

  • 52% are female, equal to the proportion nationwide but higher than that of all B.C. workers (48%).
  • 43% have a bachelor’s degree or higher, lower than the percentage of all Canadian artists (47%) but much higher than that of all B.C. workers (29%).
  • 50% are 45 years of age or older, higher than the proportions of all Canadian artists (46%) and all B.C. workers (46%).
  • 20% are members of racialized groups[10], higher than the percentage of all Canadian artists (15%) but much lower than that of all B.C. workers (29%).
  • 6% are Indigenous, higher than the proportion of all Canadian artists (3.1%) but lower than that of all B.C. workers (5.1%).
  • 28% are immigrants to Canada, higher than the proportion of all Canadian artists (21%) but lower than that of all B.C. workers (30%).
  • 7% speak French most often at home, lower than the percentage of all artists outside of Quebec (1.6%) but similar to that of all B.C. workers (0.6%).
  • 56% are self-employed, higher than the proportion of all Canadian artists (52%) and much higher than that of all B.C. workers (14%).

Figure 4 compares the median incomes of all artists in B.C., all Canadian artists, and all B.C. workers. A typical artist in B.C. has:

  • Total individual income of $22,700, lower than the median of all Canadian artists ($24,300) but 46% lower than that of all B.C. workers ($42,300).
  • Employment income of $16,700, similar to the median of all Canadian artists ($17,300) but 56% below that of all B.C. workers ($38,200).
  • Household income of $53,500, lower than the median of all Canadian artists ($57,800) and 37% lower than that of all B.C. workers ($85,300).

Figure 4: Median income of artists in British Columbia

B.C. artists by occupation and industry

Musicians and singers account for the largest share of B.C.’s 28,700 artists, followed by visual artists and writers:

  • Musicians and singers: 21%
  • Visual artists: 16%
  • Authors and writers: 16%
  • Producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations: 15%
  • Artisans and craftspeople: 11%
  • Actors and comedians: 10%
  • Dancers: 6%
  • Other performers: 4%
  • Conductors, composers, and arrangers: 2%

For B.C.’s artists, the largest industry sector is arts, entertainment, and recreation, which employs just over one-third of artists (35%). Within this sector, the largest number of artists work in the “independent artists, writers, and performers” group (24% of B.C. artists), followed by performing arts companies (9%).

The next-largest sectors are information and cultural industries[11] (21%) and educational services (20%). All other industries (i.e., excluding the three noted above) employ 24% of artists in the province.

Summary information about cultural workers in British Columbia

B.C.’s 114,200 cultural workers account for 4.7% of the province’s overall labour force, the second-highest proportion in the country (next to Yukon) and well above the national average of 4%. One in every 21 workers in the province has a cultural occupation.

The 114,200 cultural workers in B.C. represent 16% of all such workers in Canada, higher than the province’s share of the overall labour force (13%).

A typical cultural worker in B.C. has:

  • Total individual income of $38,900, 8% less than all workers in the province ($42,300)
  • Employment income of $35,000, 9% less than all B.C. workers ($38,200)
  • Household income of $72,400, 15% less than all workers ($85,300)

 

Profile of Alberta artists

The 13,300 artists in Alberta represent 8.4% of Canada’s artists. Alberta artists account for 0.59% of the province’s overall labour force, below the national average of 0.87%.

Among Alberta artists:

  • 60% are female, higher than the proportions nationwide (52%) and of all Alberta workers (46%).
  • 42% have a bachelor’s degree or higher, lower than the percentage of all Canadian artists (47%) and much higher than that of all Alberta workers (27%).
  • 45% are 45 years of age or older, similar to the proportion of all Canadian artists (46%) but higher than that of all Alberta workers (41%).
  • 13% are members of racialized groups, similar to the percentage of all Canadian artists (15%) but much lower than that of all Alberta workers (22%).
  • 4.0% are Indigenous, higher than the proportion of all Canadian artists (3.1%) but lower than that of all Alberta workers (5.1%).
  • 17% are immigrants to Canada, lower than the proportions of all Canadian artists (21%) and all Alberta workers (24%).
  • 7% speak French most often at home, lower than the percentage of all artists outside of Quebec (1.6%) but similar to that of all Alberta workers (0.9%).
  • 52% are self-employed, equal to the proportion of all Canadian artists (52%) but much higher than that of all Alberta workers (12%).

Figure 5 compares the median incomes of all artists in Alberta, all Canadian artists, and all Alberta workers. A typical artist in Alberta has:

  • Total individual income of $25,800, above the median of all Canadian artists ($24,300) but 51% lower than that of all Alberta workers ($52,400).
  • Employment income of $18,000, similar to the median of all Canadian artists ($17,300) but 62% below that of all Alberta workers ($47,900).
  • Household income of $69,200, higher than the median of all Canadian artists ($57,800) but 35% lower than that of all Alberta workers ($107,100).

Figure 5: Median income of artists in Alberta

Alberta artists by occupation and industry

Musicians and singers account for over one-quarter of Alberta’s 13,300 artists, followed by writers and visual artists:

  • Musicians and singers: 28%
  • Authors and writers: 16%
  • Visual artists: 14%
  • Producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations: 11%
  • Artisans and craftspeople: 10%
  • Dancers: 9%
  • Other performers: 5%
  • Actors and comedians: 4%
  • Conductors, composers, and arrangers: 2%

For Alberta’s artists, the largest industry sectors are educational services and arts, entertainment, and recreation , each of which employs nearly one-third of artists (31% and 30%, respectively). The next-largest sector is information and cultural industries[12] (10%). All other industries (i.e., excluding the three noted above) employ 28% of artists.

Within the arts, entertainment, and recreation industry sector, the largest number of artists work in the “independent artists, writers, and performers” group (19% of Alberta artists), followed by performing arts companies (10%).

Summary information about cultural workers in Alberta

Alberta’s 68,500 cultural workers represent 3.0% of the province’s overall labour force, below the national average of 4%. One in every 33 workers in the province has a cultural occupation.

The 68,500 cultural workers in Alberta account for 9% of all such workers in Canada, lower than the province’s share of the overall national labour force (12%).

A typical cultural worker in Alberta has:

  • Total individual income of $47,100, 10% less than all workers in the province ($52,400)
  • Employment income of $43,500, 9% less than all Alberta workers ($47,900)
  • Household income of $94,300, 12% less than all workers ($107,100)

 

Profile of Saskatchewan artists

In Saskatchewan, there are 3,000 artists, representing 1.9% of Canada’s artists. Artists represent 0.52% of the province’s overall labour force, below the national average of 0.87%.

Among Saskatchewan artists:

  • 62% are female, the highest percentage in Canada and much higher than the proportions of all Canadian artists (52%) and all Saskatchewan workers (47%).
  • 39% have a bachelor’s degree or higher, lower than the percentage of all Canadian artists (47%) but much higher than that of all Saskatchewan workers (22%).
  • 44% are 45 years of age or older, similar to the proportions of all Canadian artists (46%) and all Saskatchewan workers (44%).
  • 6% are members of racialized groups, lower than the percentages of all Canadian artists (15%) and all Saskatchewan workers (11%).
  • 3% are Indigenous, much higher than the proportion of all Canadian artists (3.1%) but much lower than that of all Saskatchewan workers (11%).
  • 10% are immigrants to Canada, much lower than the proportion of all Canadian artists (21%) but similar to that of all Saskatchewan workers (12%).
  • 50% are self-employed, similar to the proportion of all Canadian artists (52%) but much higher than that of all Saskatchewan workers (14%).

Figure 6 compares the median incomes of all artists in Saskatchewan, all Canadian artists, and all Saskatchewan workers. A typical artist in Saskatchewan has:

  • Total individual income of $25,600, above the median of all Canadian artists ($24,300) but 46% lower than that of all Saskatchewan workers ($47,100).
  • Employment income of $15,900, lower than the median of all Canadian artists ($17,300) and 62% below that of all Saskatchewan workers ($41,700).
  • Household income of $62,100, higher than the median of all Canadian artists ($57,800) but 33% lower than that of all Saskatchewan workers ($92,500).

Figure 6: Median income of artists in Saskatchewan

Saskatchewan artists by occupation and industry

Musicians and singers account for nearly one-third of Saskatchewan’s 3,000 artists:

  • Musicians and singers: 30%
  • Authors and writers: 14%
  • Artisans and craftspeople: 14%
  • Visual artists: 12%
  • Dancers: 12%
  • Producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations: 11%
  • Other performers: 3%
  • Actors and comedians: 3%
  • Conductors, composers, and arrangers: 2%

For Saskatchewan’s artists, the largest industry sectors are educational services (34%) and arts, entertainment, and recreation (29%). The next-largest sector is information and cultural industries (12%). All other industries (i.e., excluding the three noted above) employ 25% of artists.

Within the arts, entertainment, and recreation industry sector, the largest number of artists work in the “independent artists, writers, and performers” group (19% of Saskatchewan artists), followed by performing arts companies (9%).

Summary information about cultural workers in Saskatchewan

The 14,100 cultural workers in Saskatchewan account for 2.4% of the province’s overall labour force, well below the national average of 4%. One in every 41 workers in the province has a cultural occupation.

The 14,100 cultural workers in Saskatchewan represent 2.0% of all such workers in Canada, lower than the province’s share of the overall national labour force (3.1%).

A typical cultural worker in Saskatchewan has:

  • Total individual income of $42,200, 10% less than all workers in the province ($47,100)
  • Employment income of $37,000, 11% less than all Saskatchewan workers ($41,700)
  • Household income of $84,500, 9% less than all workers ($92,500)

 

Profile of Manitoba artists

The 4,300 artists in Manitoba account for 2.7% of all artists in Canada. Manitoba’s artists represent 0.67% of the province’s overall labour force, highest among the Prairie Provinces but below the national average of 0.87%. Among Manitoba artists:

  • 56% are female, higher than the proportions nationwide (52%) and of all Manitoba workers (47%).
  • 45% have a bachelor’s degree or higher, similar to the percentage of all Canadian artists (47%) but much higher than that of all Manitoba workers (25%).
  • 46% are 45 years of age or older, equal to the proportion of all Canadian artists but higher than that of all Manitoba workers (43%).
  • 10% are members of racialized groups, lower than the percentages of all Canadian artists (15%) and all Manitoba workers (18%).
  • 10% are Indigenous, the highest proportion among the provinces, much higher than the proportion of all Canadian artists (3.1%) but lower than that of all Manitoba workers (13%).
  • 13% are immigrants to Canada, lower than the proportions of all Canadian artists (21%) and all Manitoba workers (21%).
  • 4% speak French most often at home, higher than the percentages of all artists outside of Quebec (1.6%) and all Manitoba workers (1.5%).
  • 49% are self-employed, below the proportion of all Canadian artists (52%) but much higher than that of all Manitoba workers (10%).

Figure 7 compares the median incomes of all artists in Manitoba, all Canadian artists, and all Manitoba workers. A typical artist in Manitoba has:

  • Total individual income of $23,300, below the median of all Canadian artists ($24,300) and 44% lower than that of all Manitoba workers ($41,900).
  • Employment income of $15,100, lower than the median of all Canadian artists ($17,300) and 60% below that of all Manitoba workers ($37,700).
  • Household income of $53,900, lower than the median of all Canadian artists ($57,800) and 35% lower than that of all Manitoba workers ($82,600).

Figure 7: Median income of artists in Manitoba

Manitoba artists by occupation and industry

Musicians and singers account for close to one-third of Manitoba’s 4,300 artists:

  • Musicians and singers: 30%
  • Authors and writers: 16%
  • Producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations: 13%
  • Visual artists: 11%
  • Artisans and craftspeople: 10%
  • Dancers: 8%
  • Actors and comedians: 5%
  • Other performers: 4%
  • Conductors, composers, and arrangers: 2%

For Manitoba’s artists, the largest industry sectors are arts, entertainment, and recreation (36%) and educational services (27%). The next-largest sector is information and cultural industries (13%). All other industries (i.e., excluding the three noted above) employ 24% of artists.

Within the arts, entertainment, and recreation industry sector, the largest number of artists work in the “independent artists, writers, and performers” group (20% of Manitoba artists), followed by performing arts companies (13%).

Summary information about cultural workers in Manitoba

In Manitoba, the 19,600 cultural workers represent 3.0% of the province’s overall labour force, below the national average of 4%. One in every 33 workers in the province has a cultural occupation.

The 19,600 cultural workers in Manitoba account for 2.7% of all such workers in Canada, lower than the province’s share of the overall national labour force (3.6%).

A typical cultural worker in Manitoba has:

  • Total individual income of $39,300, 6% less than all workers in the province ($41,900)
  • Employment income of $35,400, 6% less than all Manitoba workers ($37,700)
  • Household income of $73,300, 11% less than all workers ($82,600)

 

Profile of Ontario artists

With 66,000 artists, Ontario’s share of all Canadian artists (42%) is higher than the province’s share of the overall Canadian labour force (38%). The 66,000 artists in Ontario represent 0.95% of the province’s overall labour force, one of the highest proportions in the country and above the national average of 0.87%.

Among Ontario artists:

  • 52% are female, equal to the proportion nationwide (52%) but higher than that of all Ontario workers (48%).
  • 50% have a bachelor’s degree or higher, higher than the percentage of all Canadian artists (47%) and much higher than that of all Ontario workers (32%).
  • 45% are 45 years of age or older, similar to the proportions of all Canadian artists (46%) and all Ontario workers (45%).
  • 18% are members of racialized groups, higher than the percentage of all Canadian artists (15%) but much lower than that of all Ontario workers (28%).
  • 9% are Indigenous, compared with 3.1% of all Canadian artists and 2.4% of all Ontario workers.
  • 23% are immigrants to Canada, similar to the proportion of all Canadian artists (21%) but lower than that of all Ontario workers (31%).
  • 6% speak French most often at home, equal to the percentage of all artists outside of Quebec but below that of all Ontario workers (2.4%).
  • 50% are self-employed, similar to the proportion of all Canadian artists (52%) but much higher than that of all Ontario workers (12%).

Figure 8 compares the median incomes of all artists in Ontario, all Canadian artists, and all workers in Ontario. A typical artist in Ontario has:

  • Total individual income of $23,500, similar to the median of all Canadian artists ($24,300) but 46% lower than that of all Ontario workers ($43,400).
  • Employment income of $17,300, equal to the median of all Canadian artists but 56% below that of all Ontario workers ($39,800).
  • Household income of $60,800, higher than the median of all Canadian artists ($57,800) but 33% lower than that of all Ontario workers ($90,500).

Figure 8: Median income of artists in Ontario

Ontario artists by occupation and industry

Musicians and singers account for the largest share of Ontario’s 66,000 artists, followed by authors and writers:

  • Musicians and singers: 22%
  • Authors and writers: 20%
  • Producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations: 18%
  • Visual artists: 11%
  • Artisans and craftspeople: 8%
  • Actors and comedians: 8%
  • Dancers: 6%
  • Other performers: 4%
  • Conductors, composers, and arrangers: 3%

For Ontario’s artists, the largest industry sector is arts, entertainment, and recreation, which employs one-third of artists (33%). Within this sector, the largest number of artists work in the “independent artists, writers, and performers” group (21% of Ontario artists), followed by performing arts companies (11%).

The next-largest sectors are information and cultural industries (21% of Ontario artists) and educational services (20%). All other industries (i.e., excluding the three noted above) employ 26% of artists.

Summary information about cultural workers in Ontario

Ontario’s 296,700 cultural workers account for 4.3% of the province’s overall labour force, one of the highest proportions in the country and above the national average of 4%. One in every 23 workers in the province has a cultural occupation.

The 296,700 cultural workers in Ontario represent 41% of all such workers in Canada, higher than the province’s share of the overall labour force (38%).

A typical cultural worker in Ontario has:

  • Total individual income of $40,900, 6% less than all workers in the province ($43,400)
  • Employment income of $38,100, 4% less than all Ontario workers ($39,800)
  • Household income of $78,500, 13% less than all workers ($90,500)

 

Profile of Quebec artists

With 34,800 artists, Quebec accounts for 22% of all artists in Canada. There is a similar proportion of Quebec’s labour force in arts occupations (0.84%) as the Canadian average (0.87%).

Among Quebec artists:

  • 48% are female, lower than the proportion nationwide (52%) but equal to that of all Quebec workers (48%).
  • 46% have a bachelor’s degree or higher, similar to the percentage of all Canadian artists (47%) but much higher than that of all Quebec workers (25%).
  • 43% are 45 years of age or older, below the proportion of all Canadian artists (46%) but similar to that of all Quebec workers (44%).
  • 8% are members of racialized groups, lower than the percentages of all Canadian artists (15%) and all Quebec workers (12%).
  • 8% are Indigenous, compared with 3.1% of all Canadian artists and 2.0% of all Quebec workers.
  • 15% are immigrants to Canada, lower than the proportion of all Canadian artists (21%) but equal to that of all Quebec workers (15%).
  • 77% speak French most often at home, lower than the percentage of all Quebec workers (83%).
  • 21% speak English most often at home, higher than the percentage of all Quebec workers (13%).
  • 52% are self-employed, equal to the proportion of all Canadian artists and much higher than that of all Quebec workers (12%).

Figure 9 compares the median incomes of all artists in Quebec, all Canadian artists, and all workers in Quebec. A typical artist in Quebec has:

  • Total individual income of $26,800, higher than the median of all Canadian artists ($24,300) but 35% lower than that of all Quebec workers ($41,400). While substantial, this is the smallest difference in Canada in median income between artists and all workers.
  • Employment income of $18,800, higher than the median of all Canadian artists ($17,300) but 47% below that of all Quebec workers ($35,800).
  • Household income of $52,900, lower than the median of all Canadian artists ($57,800) and 29% lower than that of all Quebec workers ($74,800).

Figure 9: Median income of artists in Quebec

Quebec artists by occupation and industry

Producers, directors, and choreographers account for the largest share of Quebec’s 34,800 artists, followed by musicians:

  • Producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations: 23% (the highest such percentage in Canada)
  • Musicians and singers: 19%
  • Authors and writers: 16%
  • Visual artists: 14%
  • Artisans and craftspeople: 8%
  • Actors and comedians: 6%
  • Dancers: 6%
  • Other performers: 4%
  • Conductors, composers, and arrangers: 3%

For Quebec’s artists, the largest industry sector is arts, entertainment, and recreation, which employs over one-third of artists (38%). Within this sector, the largest number of artists work in the “independent artists, writers, and performers” group (21% of Quebec artists), followed by performing arts companies (13%).

The next-largest sectors are information and cultural industries (21%) and educational services (14%). All other industries (i.e., excluding the three noted above) employ 27% of artists.

Summary information about cultural workers in Quebec

Quebec’s 179,400 cultural workers account for 4.3% of the province’s overall labour force, the third-highest proportion in the country and above the national average of 4%. One in every 23 workers in the province has a cultural occupation.

The 179,400 cultural workers in Quebec represent 25% of all such workers in Canada, higher than the province’s share of the overall labour force (23%).

A typical cultural worker in Quebec has:

  • Total individual income of $41,000, just 1% less than all workers in the province ($41,400)
  • Employment income of $36,400, 2% more than all Quebec workers ($35,800)
  • Household income of $67,900, 9% less than all workers ($74,800)

 

Profile of New Brunswick artists

In New Brunswick, there are 1,800 artists, representing 1.2% of all artists in Canada. Artists account for 0.49% of the province’s overall labour force, well below the national average of 0.87%. Among New Brunswick artists:

  • 53% are female, similar to the proportion nationwide (52%) but above that of all New Brunswick workers (48%).
  • 41% have a bachelor’s degree or higher, lower than the percentage of all Canadian artists (47%) but double the percentage of all New Brunswick workers (21%).
  • 52% are 45 years of age or older, higher than the proportions of all Canadian artists (46%) and all New Brunswick workers (48%).
  • 5% are members of racialized groups, lower than the percentage of all Canadian artists (15%) but similar to that of all New Brunswick workers (2.9%).
  • 3% are Indigenous, similar to the proportions of all Canadian artists (3.1%) and all New Brunswick workers (3.5%).
  • 10% are immigrants to Canada, lower than the proportion of all Canadian artists (21%) but higher than that of all New Brunswick workers (5%).
  • 22% speak French most often at home, the highest proportion outside of Quebec (average of 1.6% in the other provinces) but below the Francophone proportion of all New Brunswick workers (29%).
  • 49% are self-employed, slightly below the proportion of all Canadian artists (52%) but many times higher than that of all New Brunswick workers (8%).

Figure 10 compares the median incomes of all artists in New Brunswick, all Canadian artists, and all New Brunswick workers. A typical artist in New Brunswick has:

  • Total individual income of $24,200, similar to the median of all Canadian artists ($24,300) but 38% lower than that of all New Brunswick workers ($38,800).
  • Employment income of $15,000, lower than the median of all Canadian artists ($17,300) and 56% below that of all New Brunswick workers ($33,700).
  • Household income of $56,000, just below the median of all Canadian artists ($57,800) but 25% lower than that of all New Brunswick workers ($74,600).

Figure 10: Median income of artists in New Brunswick

New Brunswick artists by occupation and industry

Musicians and singers account for exactly one-quarter of New Brunswick’s 1,800 artists:

  • Musicians and singers: 25%
  • Authors and writers: 17%
  • Artisans and craftspeople: 16%
  • Visual artists: 14%
  • Producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations: 11%
  • Dancers: 5%
  • Conductors, composers, and arrangers: 5%
  • Other performers: 3%
  • Actors and comedians: 2%

The most common industry sectors among New Brunswick artists are arts, entertainment, and recreation (28%) and educational services (23%). The next-largest sector is information and cultural industries (11%). All other industries (i.e., excluding the three noted above) employ 38% of artists. The relatively high proportion in other industries reflects, in part, the fairly large number of artisans and craftspeople among New Brunswick’s artists. Many artisans and craftspeople are classified within the manufacturing and retail trade industries.

Within the arts, entertainment, and recreation industry sector, many artists work in the “independent artists, writers, and performers” group (14% of New Brunswick artists) and performing arts companies (11%).

Summary information about cultural workers in New Brunswick

The 8,500 cultural workers in New Brunswick account for 2.3% of the province’s overall labour force, well below the national average of 4%. One in every 44 workers in the province has a cultural occupation.

New Brunswick’s 8,500 cultural workers represent 1.2% of all such workers in Canada, lower than the province’s share of the overall Canadian labour force (2.0%).

A typical cultural worker in New Brunswick has:

  • Total individual income of $37,100, 4% less than all workers in the province ($38,800)
  • Employment income of $32,700, 3% less than all New Brunswick workers ($33,700)
  • Household income of $67,600, 9% less than all workers ($74,600)

 

Profile of Nova Scotia artists

The 3,700 artists in Nova Scotia account for 2.4% of Canada’s artists. Nova Scotia has the highest proportion of its labour force in arts occupations (0.80%) among the Atlantic Provinces, similar to the Canadian average (0.87%). Among Nova Scotia artists:

  • 54% are female, slightly higher than the proportion nationwide (52%) and well above the percentage of all Nova Scotia workers (49%).
  • 51% have a bachelor’s degree or higher, the highest such proportion among the provinces, above the percentage of all Canadian artists (47%), and about double the proportion of all Nova Scotia workers (26%).
  • 54% are 45 years of age or older, the highest proportion among the provinces and well above the proportions of all Canadian artists (46%) and all Nova Scotia workers (48%).
  • 5% are members of racialized groups, lower than the percentage of all Canadian artists (15%) and close to that of all Nova Scotia workers (6%).
  • 7% are Indigenous, similar to the proportion of all Canadian artists (3.1%) but lower than that of all Nova Scotia workers (5.2%).
  • 12% are immigrants to Canada, lower than the proportion of all Canadian artists (21%) but double that of all Nova Scotia workers (6%).
  • 3% speak French most often at home, similar to the percentages of all artists outside of Quebec (1.6%) and all Nova Scotia workers (1.8%).
  • 56% are self-employed, higher than the proportions of all Canadian artists (52%) and of all Nova Scotia workers (9%).

Figure 11 compares the median incomes of all artists in Nova Scotia, all Canadian artists, and all Nova Scotia workers. A typical artist in Nova Scotia has:

  • Total individual income of $21,500, below the median of all Canadian artists ($24,300) and 46% lower than that of all Nova Scotia workers ($40,000).
  • Employment income of $12,900, lower than the median of all Canadian artists ($17,300) and 63% below that of all Nova Scotia workers ($34,800).
  • Household income of $55,800, lower than the median of all Canadian artists ($57,800) and 27% lower than that of all Nova Scotia workers ($76,400).

Figure 11: Median income of artists in Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia artists by occupation and industry

Musicians and singers account for almost one-quarter of Nova Scotia’s 3,700 artists:

  • Musicians and singers: 23%
  • Authors and writers: 18%
  • Visual artists: 17%
  • Artisans and craftspeople: 14%
  • Producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations: 13%
  • Dancers: 5%
  • Actors and comedians: 3%
  • Conductors, composers, and arrangers: 3%
  • Other performers: 3%

By far, the largest industry sector for Nova Scotia’s artists is arts, entertainment, and recreation (38%). Within this sector, the largest number of artists work in the “independent artists, writers, and performers” group (24% of Nova Scotia artists), followed by performing arts companies (12%). The percentage of artists in arts, entertainment, and recreation and the proportion of independent artists are the highest such percentages among the provinces.

The next-largest sectors are educational services (17%) and information and cultural industries (15%). All other industries (i.e., excluding the three noted above) employ 29% of artists.

Summary information about cultural workers in Nova Scotia

In Nova Scotia, the 15,200 cultural workers represent 3.3% of the province’s overall labour force, highest among the Atlantic Provinces but below the national average of 4%. One in every 31 workers in the province has a cultural occupation.

The 15,200 cultural workers in Nova Scotia account for 2.1% of all such workers in Canada, lower than the province’s share of the overall national labour force (2.5%).

A typical cultural worker in Nova Scotia has:

  • Total individual income of $35,700, 11% less than all workers in the province ($40,000)
  • Employment income of $30,900, 11% less than all Nova Scotia workers ($34,800)
  • Household income of $66,500, 12% less than all workers ($76,400)

 

Profile of Prince Edward Island artists

There are 540 artists in Prince Edward Island, representing 0.3% of all artists nationwide. Artists account for 0.70% of PEI’s overall labour force, below the national average of 0.87%.

Among PEI artists:

  • 55% are female, higher than the proportions of artists nationwide (52%) and all PEI workers (49%).
  • 38% have a bachelor’s degree or higher, lower than the percentage of all Canadian artists (47%) but well above the percentage of all PEI workers (22%).
  • 52% are 45 years of age or older, higher than the proportion of all Canadian artists (46%) and slightly higher than that of all PEI workers (49%).
  • 8% are immigrants to Canada, much lower than the proportion of all Canadian artists (21%) but similar to that of all PEI workers (6%).
  • Very few are Indigenous or members of racialized groups.[13]
  • 97% speak English most often at home, higher than the proportion of all Canadian artists (76%) but similar to that of all workers in the province (96%).
  • 52% are self-employed, equal to the proportion of all Canadian artists but many times higher than that of all PEI workers (11%).

Figure 12 compares the median incomes of all artists in PEI, all Canadian artists, and all PEI workers. A typical artist in PEI has:

  • Total individual income of $21,100, below the median of all Canadian artists ($24,300) and 44% lower than that of all PEI workers ($37,800).
  • Employment income of $17,500, similar to the median of all Canadian artists ($17,300) and 44% below that of all PEI workers ($31,100).
  • Household income of $43,400, lower than the median of all Canadian artists ($57,800) and 42% lower than that of all PEI workers ($74,300).

Figure 12: Median income of artists in Prince Edward Island

PEI artists by occupation and industry

Musicians and singers account for over one-quarter of PEI’s 540 artists:

  • Musicians and singers: 29%
  • Artisans and craftspeople: 20%
  • Visual artists: 16%
  • Producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations: 13%
  • Authors and writers: 9%
  • Four other occupations: total of 12% (includes actors and comedians, dancers, other performers, as well as conductors, composers, and arrangers).

By far, the most common industry sector among PEI artists is arts, entertainment, and recreation, which employs over one-quarter of the Island’s artists (28%). Within this sector, many artists work in the “independent artists, writers, and performers” group (12% of PEI artists) and performing arts companies (also 12%).

The next-largest sectors are educational services (20%) and information and cultural industries (19%). All other industries (i.e., excluding the three noted above) employ 37% of artists. The relatively high proportion in other industries reflects, in part, the fairly large number of artisans and craftspeople among PEI’s artists. Many artisans and craftspeople are classified within the manufacturing and retail trade industries.

Summary information about cultural workers in PEI

The 2,000 cultural workers in PEI account for 2.6% of the province’s overall labour force, below the national average of 4%. One in every 38 workers in the province has a cultural occupation.

PEI’s 2,000 cultural workers represent 0.3% of all such workers in Canada, just below the province’s share of the overall Canadian labour force (0.4%).

A typical cultural worker in PEI has:

  • Total individual income of $36,800, 2% less than all workers in the province ($37,800)
  • Employment income of $33,200, 7% more than all PEI workers ($31,100)
  • Household income of $73,100, 2% less than all workers ($74,300)

 

Profile of Newfoundland and Labrador artists

In Newfoundland and Labrador, there are 1,400 artists, accounting for 0.9% of all of Canada’s artists. Artists represent 0.55% of the province’s overall labour force, below the national average of 0.87%.

Among NL artists:

  • 55% are female, higher than the proportions of all Canadian artists (52%) and all workers in the province (48%).
  • 49% have a bachelor’s degree or higher, similar to the percentage of all Canadian artists (47%) but much higher than that of all workers in the province (19%).
  • 43% are 45 years of age or older, lower than the proportions of all Canadian artists (46%) and all workers in the province (48%).
  • 2% are Indigenous, double the proportion of all Canadian artists (3.1%) but lower than that of all workers in the province (8.5%).
  • 6% are immigrants to Canada, much lower than the proportion of all Canadian artists (21%) but similar to that of all workers in the province (2.6%).
  • 44% are self-employed, lower than the proportion of all Canadian artists (52%) but many times higher than that of all workers in the province (6%).

Figure 13 compares the median incomes of all artists in Newfoundland and Labrador, all Canadian artists, and all workers in the province. A typical artist in NL has:

  • Total individual income of $24,700, similar to the median of all Canadian artists ($24,300) but 45% below that of all workers in the province ($44,600).
  • Employment income of $15,600, lower than the median of all Canadian artists ($17,300) and 60% below that of all workers in the province ($39,100).
  • Household income of $64,200, higher than the median of all Canadian artists ($57,800) but 32% lower than that of all workers in the province ($93,900).

Figure 13: Median income of artists in Newfoundland and Labrador

NL artists by occupation and industry

Musicians and singers account for one-third of Newfoundland and Labrador’s 1,400 artists:

  • Musicians and singers: 33%
  • Producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations: 12%
  • Visual artists: 11%
  • Artisans and craftspeople: 11%
  • Authors and writers: 11%
  • Actors and comedians: 8%
  • Dancers: 7%
  • Other performers: 3%

For artists in Newfoundland and Labrador, the largest industry sectors are educational services (32%) and arts, entertainment, and recreation (30%). The next-largest sector is information and cultural industries (12%). All other industries (i.e., excluding the three noted above) employ 25% of artists.

Within the arts, entertainment, and recreation industry sector, the largest number of artists work in the “independent artists, writers, and performers” group (16% of NL artists), followed by performing arts companies (12%).

Summary information about cultural workers in NL

The 5,900 cultural workers in NL account for 2.3% of the province’s overall labour force, well below the national average of 4%. One in every 43 workers in the province has a cultural occupation.

The 5,900 cultural workers in the province represent 0.8% of all such workers in Canada, lower than the province’s share of the overall national labour force (1.4%).

A typical cultural worker in NL has:

  • Total individual income of $41,200, 8% less than all workers in the province ($44,600)
  • Employment income of $34,500, 12% less than all workers in the province ($39,100)
  • Household income of $82,000, 13% less than all workers ($93,900)

 

Profile of artists in the territories

The three territories are home to 550 artists, or 0.3% of all artists nationwide. The 550 artists represent 0.91% of the territories’ overall labour force, similar to the national concentration of artists (0.87%). However, there are substantial differences in the concentration of artists between the territories:

  • The 250 artists in Yukon account for 1.14% of the territory’s labour force, the third-highest concentration of artists in the country.
  • In the Northwest Territories, the 120 artists represent 0.52% of the labour force.
  • Nunavut’s 180 artists represent 1.17% of the territory’s overall labour force, the second-highest level in the country behind only B.C.

To ensure data reliability and accuracy, no estimates of fewer than 40 artists are provided in this report. In the three territories, detailed information about each territory is provided for statistics with reliable information. For some statistics, however, the three territories have been grouped to avoid presenting unreliable data.

Artists in the three territories by occupation and industry

Artisans and craftspeople account for over one-third of the territories’ 550 artists, due in large part to the very high proportion in Nunavut (71%):

  • Artisans and craftspeople: 37%
  • Visual artists: 20%
  • Producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations: 17%
  • Authors and writers: 13%
  • Musicians and singers: 7%

For artists in the territories, the largest industry sector is arts, entertainment, and recreation (47%). This proportion is very high in Nunavut (54%) and Yukon (49%) but lower in the Northwest Territories (33%). Almost all of these artists work in the “independent artists, writers, and performers” group (43% of artists in all three territories, 51% in Nunavut, 42% in Yukon, and 33% in the Northwest Territories).

In all three territories combined, the next-largest sectors are information and cultural industries (11%) and educational services (10%). All other industries (i.e., excluding the three noted above) employ 32% of artists.

 

Yukon artists

Among the 250 artists in Yukon:

  • 53% are female, similar to the proportion of all Canadian artists (52%) and above that of all workers in the territory (50%).
  • 51% have a bachelor’s degree or higher, higher than the percentage of all Canadian artists (47%) and much higher than that of all workers in the territory (29%).
  • 63% are 45 years of age or older, the highest such percentage in Canada and much higher than the proportions of all Canadian artists (46%) and all workers in the territory (45%).
  • 16% are Indigenous, much higher than the proportion of all Canadian artists (3%) but slightly below that of all workers in the territory (19%).
  • 94% speak English most often at home, higher than the proportion of all Canadian artists (76%) but similar to that of all workers in the territory (93%).
  • 69% are self-employed, higher than the proportion of all Canadian artists (52%) and many times higher than that of all workers in the territory (12%).
  • 31% are visual artists, more than double the proportion of all Canadian artists (13%).
  • 49% work in the arts, entertainment, and recreation sector, much higher than the percentage of all Canadian artists (34%).

Figure 14 compares the median incomes of all artists in Yukon, all Canadian artists, and all workers in the territory. A typical artist in Yukon has:

  • Total individual income of $32,900, higher than the median of all Canadian artists ($24,300) but 39% below that of all workers in the territory ($54,200).
  • Employment income of $28,100, above the median of all Canadian artists ($17,300) but 43% below that of all workers in the territory ($49,000).
  • Household income of $58,300, similar to the median of all Canadian artists ($57,800) but 39% below that of all workers in the territory ($95,600).

Figure 14: Median income of artists in Yukon

Summary information about cultural workers in Yukon

The 1,100 cultural workers in Yukon account for 0.2% of all cultural workers in Canada and 5.3% of the territory’s overall labour force, the highest percentage in Canada and well above the national average of 4%. One in every 19 workers in the territory has a cultural occupation.

A typical cultural worker in Yukon has:

  • Total individual income of $48,900, 10% less than all workers in the territory ($54,200)
  • Employment income of $42,200, 14% less than all workers in the territory ($49,000)
  • Household income of $90,000, 6% less than all workers ($95,600)

 

Northwest Territories artists

Among the 120 artists in the Northwest Territories:

  • 58% are female, above the proportions of all Canadian artists (52%) and all workers in the territory (47%).
  • 54% are 45 years of age or older, higher than the proportions of all Canadian artists (46%) and all workers in the territory (41%).
  • 63% are Indigenous, much higher than the proportions of all Canadian artists (3%) and all workers in the territory (42%).
  • 100% speak English most often at home, higher than the proportions of all Canadian artists (76%) and all workers in the territory (91%).
  • 58% are self-employed, higher than the proportion of all Canadian artists (52%) and many times higher than that of all workers in the territory (6%).
  • 33% work in the arts, entertainment, and recreation sector, similar to the percentage of all Canadian artists (34%).

Figure 15 compares the median incomes of all artists in the Northwest Territories, all Canadian artists, and all workers in the territory. A typical artist in NWT has:

  • Total individual income of $27,200, higher than the median of all Canadian artists ($24,300) but 60% below that of all workers in the territory ($68,200).
  • Employment income of $14,900, below the median of all Canadian artists ($17,300) and 77% less than all workers in the territory ($64,900).
  • Household income of $78,100, much higher than the median of all Canadian artists ($57,800) but 42% lower than that of all workers in the territory ($134,100).

Figure 15: Median income of artists in the Northwest Territories

Summary information about cultural workers in the Northwest Territories

The 900 cultural workers in the Northwest Territories represent 0.1% of all cultural workers in Canada and 3.8% of the territory’s overall labour force, similar to the national average of 4%. One in every 26 workers in the territory has a cultural occupation.

A typical cultural worker in NWT has:

  • Total individual income of $70,800, 4% more than all workers in the territory ($68,200). The NWT is one of only two jurisdictions in Canada (along with Nunavut) where cultural workers have higher individual income than all workers.
  • Employment income of $66,500, 3% more than all workers in the territory ($64,900)
  • Household income of $126,400, 6% less than all workers ($134,100)

 

Nunavut artists

Among Nunavut’s 180 artists:

  • 26% are female, by far the lowest proportion in Canada, well below the percentages of all Canadian artists (52%) and all workers in the territory (48%).
  • 57% do not have at least a secondary school diploma or its equivalent, compared with 6% of all Canadian artists and 36% of all workers in the territory.
  • 54% are 45 years of age or older, higher than the proportions of all Canadian artists (46%) and all workers in the territory (34%).
  • 91% are Indigenous, the highest proportion in the country and much higher than the proportions of all Canadian artists (3%) and all workers in the territory (73%).
  • 66% speak languages other than English and French most often at home, much higher than the proportions of all Canadian artists (9%) and all workers in the territory (43%).
  • 66% are self-employed, higher than the proportion of all Canadian artists (52%) and much higher than that of all workers in the territory (3%).
  • 71% are artisans and craftspeople, many times higher than the proportion of all Canadian artists (9%).
  • 54% work in the arts, entertainment, and recreation sector, much higher than the percentage of all Canadian artists (34%).

Figure 16 compares the median incomes of all artists in Nunavut, all Canadian artists, and all workers in the territory. A typical artist in Nunavut has:

  • Total individual income of $10,700, much lower than the median of all Canadian artists ($24,300) and 80% below that of all workers in the territory ($53,400).
  • Employment income of $8,700, well below the median of all Canadian artists ($17,300) and 83% lower than that of all workers in the territory ($50,300).
  • Household income of $41,400, lower than the median of all Canadian artists ($57,800) and 65% lower than that of all Nunavut workers ($119,000).

Figure 16: Median income of artists in Nunavut

Summary information about cultural workers in Nunavut

The 530 cultural workers in Nunavut account for 0.1% of all cultural workers in Canada and 3.5% of the territory’s overall labour force, below the national average of 4%. One in every 28 workers in the territory has a cultural occupation.

A typical cultural worker in Nunavut has:

  • Total individual income of $55,400, 4% higher than all workers in the territory ($53,400)
  • Employment income of $68,100, 35% more than all workers in the territory ($50,300)
  • Household income of $89,600, 25% less than all workers ($119,000)

 

Appendix 1: Detailed tables

Note: Further details are provided in supplemental tables available for download below.

Statistic

Canada BC AB SK MB ON QC

Artists

158,125 28,670 13,320 2,995 4,345 66,005 34,785
Artists as % of all artists in Canada 100% 18% 8% 1.9% 2.7% 42% 22%
Rank: artists as % of all in Canada 3 4 7 5 1 2
Artists as % of overall labour force 0.87% 1.18% 0.59% 0.52% 0.67% 0.95% 0.84%
Rank: artists as % of labour force 1 9 11 8 4 5

Arts occupations

Musicians and singers 35,005 5,890 3,790 890 1,320 14,390 6,765
Authors and writers 27,700 4,485 2,140 425 690 13,240 5,485
Producers, directors, choreographers, and related 27,595 4,330 1,510 315 555 11,825 8,055
Visual artists 21,055 4,560 1,920 355 485 7,535 4,975
Artisans and craftspersons 14,715 3,175 1,390 410 455 5,355 2,640
Actors and comedians 11,375 2,885 485 90 230 5,160 2,195
Dancers 10,140 1,665 1,220 355 345 4,090 1,975
Other performers 6,345 1,140 640 100 155 2,585 1,510
Conductors, composers, and arrangers 4,195 545 225 50 105 1,815 1,200

Cultural workers

726,630 114,230 68,520 14,055 19,620 296,665 179,400
CW as % of all CW in Canada 100% 16% 9% 1.9% 2.7% 41% 25%
Rank: CW as % of Canada 3 4 7 5 1 2
CW as % of overall labour force 4.0% 4.7% 3.0% 2.4% 3.0% 4.3% 4.3%
Rank: CW as % of labour force 2 8 11 9 4 3
CW represent 1 in x workers 25 21 33 41 33 23 23

All workers

18,268,125 2,427,865 2,262,935 575,310 649,525 6,970,625 4,154,015
All workers as % of Canada 100% 13% 12% 3.1% 3.6% 38% 23%

 

Statistic

NB NS PEI NL YT NWT NU Prairies Atlantic All territories

Artists

1,830 3,735 535 1,375 245 120 175 20,655 7,470 545
Artists as % of all in Canada 1.2% 2.4% 0.3% 0.9% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 13% 4.7% 0.3%
Rank: artists as % of all in Canada 8 6 10 9 11 13 12
Artists as % of overall labour force 0.49% 0.80% 0.70% 0.55% 1.14% 0.52% 1.17% 0.59% 0.64% 0.91%
Rank: artists as % of labour force 13 6 7 10 3 12 2

Arts occupations

Musicians and singers 465 860 155 450 < 40 < 40 < 40 6,000 1,920 40
Authors and writers 310 660 50 150 40 < 40 < 40 3,250 1,170 70
Producers, directors, choreographers, and related 200 480 70 170 40 < 40 < 40 2,385 915 90
Visual artists 250 640 85 155 75 < 40 < 40 2,755 1,125 110
Artisans and craftspersons 300 535 105 155 40 < 40 125 2,255 1,090 200
Actors and comedians 45 130 < 40 115 < 40 < 40 < 40 810 320 < 40
Dancers 140 195 < 40 100 < 40 < 40 < 40 1,920 470 < 40
Other performers 50 110 < 40 45 < 40 < 40 < 40 895 220 < 40
Conductors, composers, and arrangers 85 125 < 40 < 40 < 40 < 40 < 40 380 250 < 40

Cultural workers

8,470 15,215 2,025 5,885 1,135 890 525 102,195 31,600 2,550
CW as % of all CW in Canada 1.2% 2.1% 0.3% 0.8% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 14% 4.3% 0.4%
Rank: CW as % of Canada 8 6 10 9 11 12 13
CW as % of overall labour force 2.3% 3.3% 2.6% 2.3% 5.3% 3.8% 3.5% 2.9% 2.7% 4.3%
Rank: CW as % of labour force 13 7 10 12 1 5 6
CW represent 1 in x workers 44 31 38 43 19 26 28 34 37 23

All workers

374,470 465,330 76,650 251,800 21,405 23,250 14,955 3,487,775 1,168,240 59,610
All workers as % of Canada 2.0% 2.5% 0.4% 1.4% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 19% 6.4% 0.3%

 

Income statistics

Canada BC AB SK MB ON QC

Artists

Median personal income $24,294 $22,680 $25,753 $25,636 $23,339 $23,454 $26,788
Median employment income $17,331 $16,730 $17,970 $15,943 $15,111 $17,344 $18,829
Median household income $57,796 $53,473 $69,201 $62,147 $53,870 $60,828 $52,895
Average personal income $38,455 $37,787 $40,446 $33,768 $30,410 $39,440 $38,993
Average employment income $30,740 $31,008 $29,352 $25,690 $22,760 $32,071 $31,137
Average household income $78,403 $76,363 $95,120 $77,323 $68,537 $83,118 $70,099

Cultural workers

Median personal income $40,971 $38,882 $47,110 $42,201 $39,318 $40,933 $41,006
Median employment income $37,211 $34,954 $43,492 $36,952 $35,420 $38,089 $36,421
Median household income $75,353 $72,369 $94,301 $84,467 $73,348 $78,543 $67,907
Average personal income $48,833 $48,060 $58,248 $47,546 $43,820 $49,379 $46,507
Average employment income $44,045 $43,681 $51,791 $41,723 $39,029 $45,377 $41,019
Average household income $92,034 $89,982 $115,902 $95,733 $85,907 $96,557 $80,654

All workers

Median personal income $43,484 $42,313 $52,418 $47,095 $41,901 $43,353 $41,416
Median employment income $38,997 $38,209 $47,898 $41,675 $37,688 $39,758 $35,823
Median household income $86,460 $85,291 $107,141 $92,547 $82,593 $90,457 $74,805
Average personal income $56,872 $54,316 $72,436 $58,132 $51,431 $57,532 $51,147
Average employment income $51,091 $49,124 $64,256 $51,636 $46,617 $52,680 $44,758
Average household income $108,920 $104,686 $138,481 $109,577 $99,854 $114,541 $92,349

 

Income statistics

NB NS PEI NL YT NWT NU Prairies Atlantic All territories

Artists

Median personal income $24,181 $21,457 $21,094 $24,742 $32,856 $27,179 $10,656 $25,181 $23,001 $20,948
Median employment income $14,991 $12,931 $17,507 $15,605 $28,131 $14,896 $8,736 $16,775 $14,557 $16,385
Median household income $55,975 $55,762 $43,446 $64,178 $58,307 $78,071 $41,408 $64,562 $56,375 $55,845
Average personal income $32,057 $33,384 $29,158 $35,335 $38,158 $42,858 $25,190 $37,320 $33,114 $35,034
Average employment income $23,791 $25,225 $24,999 $26,480 $33,260 $36,930 $29,407 $27,395 $25,080 $33,084
Average household income $65,823 $69,890 $55,076 $82,468 $71,301 $89,191 $61,588 $86,933 $70,084 $72,018

Cultural workers

Median personal income $37,142 $35,745 $36,844 $41,188 $48,900 $70,758 $55,424 $44,430 $37,176 $53,914
Median employment income $32,717 $30,860 $33,197 $34,519 $42,212 $66,533 $68,096 $40,354 $32,204 $52,310
Median household income $67,588 $67,448 $73,124 $82,004 $90,029 $126,353 $89,600 $88,121 $69,708 $98,062
Average personal income $41,134 $41,601 $41,749 $46,127 $51,248 $69,685 $62,424 $53,980 $42,332 $59,980
Average employment income $35,455 $36,318 $37,617 $40,093 $46,124 $65,782 $64,997 $47,909 $36,880 $56,608
Average household income $77,777 $79,149 $80,215 $89,688 $96,525 $132,314 $113,023 $107,325 $80,780 $111,562

All workers

Median personal income $38,839 $39,959 $37,751 $44,598 $54,208 $68,209 $53,405 $49,051 $40,321 $59,165
Median employment income $33,734 $34,762 $31,115 $39,119 $48,988 $64,889 $50,272 $44,432 $34,913 $55,196
Median household income $74,629 $76,429 $74,268 $93,860 $95,573 $134,105 $119,005 $99,578 $78,930 $114,862
Average personal income $47,063 $49,706 $44,960 $58,600 $60,077 $76,948 $67,222 $66,152 $50,473 $68,464
Average employment income $41,671 $43,772 $38,367 $52,541 $54,753 $72,396 $62,935 $58,866 $44,651 $63,711
Average household income $87,369 $91,956 $86,196 $112,128 $109,371 $150,643 $134,157 $126,550 $94,354 $131,138
 Source: 2016 census custom data request, Statistics Canada. Further details are provided in supplemental tables available for download below.

 

Appendix 2: Methodological notes

Because of major methodological changes between the 2011 National Household Survey and the 2016 long-form census, data in this report are not comparable to data in previous reports in the Statistical Insights on the Arts series. The National Household Survey was voluntary, while the long-form census is mandatory. The census was completed by 25% of all Canadian households.

Compared with even older reports in the Statistical Insights on the Arts series (using 2001 and 2006 long-form census data), there has been a change in the base population analyzed for this report. This report examines the experienced labour force, which includes all those who worked as an artist during the census reference week or worked as an artist longer than any other position since January 1, 2015. Reports from 2006 excluded respondents with no income, while this report places no restriction on incomes.

There are other important aspects about the classification of artists in census data:

  • Canadians 15 or older are classified in the occupation in which they worked the most hours during the census reference week (May 1 to 7, 2016). If they were unemployed during that week, they are classified based on the job at which they worked the longest since January 1, 2015. If they did not work at all during that period, or if they were not in the labour force during the reference week, they are excluded from the experienced labour force (and the statistics in this report).
  • Artists who spent more time at another occupation than at their artwork during the reference week would be categorized in the other occupation. The census does not capture information about secondary occupations.
  • Each occupation includes individuals who are employed or self-employed.
  • Artists who teach in post-secondary, secondary, or elementary schools are classified as professors or teachers, not in artistic occupations. Instructors and teachers in some settings (such as private arts schools, academies, and conservatories) are included as “artists”.
  • The 2016 census collected income information for 2015, the most recent calendar year.
  • Total incomes include wages and salaries, net self-employment income, investment income, retirement pensions, other income sources (a category that includes artists’ project grants), as well as government transfer payments.
  • Employment income statistics include amounts received from all employment and self-employment positions in 2015, not just the position at which the respondent worked the most hours during the reference week. In some cases, individuals may have worked in a different occupation in 2015 (the basis for earnings statistics) than the one in which they worked the most hours during the census reference week (May 1 to 7, 2016 – the basis for occupational classifications). In these cases, the earnings would have been based on the other occupation.
  • The report highlights artists’ situations in the three most common sectors for artists: 1) arts, entertainment, and recreation; 2) educational services; and 3) information and cultural industries.
  • Because of major changes in methods between the 2011 National Household Survey and the 2016 census, data in this report are not comparable to previous reports. Subsequent reports will examine demographic differences in the situations of artists.

Choice of nine arts occupations

In this report, the term “artists” is used to describe those Canadians 15 or older classified into nine occupation groups:

  • Actors and comedians
  • Artisans and craftspersons
  • Authors and writers
  • Conductors, composers and arrangers
  • Dancers
  • Musicians and singers
  • Other performers (including circus performers, magicians, models, puppeteers, and other performers not elsewhere classified)
  • Producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations
  • Visual artists (categorized by Statistics Canada as “painters, sculptors and other visual artists”)

These occupation groups were identified as artistic in discussions by arts sector representatives prior to the analysis of the 2001 census. These nine occupation groups were selected for inclusion in the Statistical Insights on the Arts series during discussions between Hill Strategies Research and the project funders: the Canada Council for the Arts, the Ontario Arts Council, and the Department of Canadian Heritage.

In general, the nine occupations were selected as “artists” on the basis of the artistic nature of the occupations, based on occupation titles and descriptions.

Strengths and limitations of census data for counting artists

The 2016 long-form census is one of the best available sources of information on artists in Canada. The census provides occupation estimates based on a very large population base: the 3.7 million households that completed the long-form version of the census.[14] This allows for a fine-grained analysis of the situations of artists in many jurisdictions across the country.

However, there are strong limitations to census data on artists, related to the focus on the job where an individual worked the most hours, the timing of the census, and the nature of the standard occupational classifications.

The focus on the job where the individual worked the most hours affects census labour force counts. Having multiple jobs is an important facet of the working life of many artists. Some may work more hours at other jobs during the week than at their art. Due to this, census-based estimates of artists are likely to be somewhat low.

A gap in the Statistics Canada occupational classification is the fact that there is no distinct category for filmmakers or other media artists. The closest categories are “Producers, directors, choreographers, and related occupations” (which includes a number of artforms), “film and video camera operators” (not one of the nine arts occupations), and “painters, sculptors, and other visual artists”.

Another example of an occupation group that is not a perfect fit for artists is the authors and writers category. This occupation group includes a broader range of writers than simply novelists, poets and other “artistic” writers (but excludes journalists).

Another issue is the timing of the census. The classification of occupations is based on the job that respondents spend the most hours at during the week of Sunday, May 1 to Saturday, May 7, 2016. This is an “in between” period for many artistic endeavors. For example, many performing arts organizations have seasons that extend from the fall to the spring. These seasons may be finished before the week of May 1, leaving some artists to find other employment during the late spring and summer. Other organizations may have summer seasons that do not begin in early May.

Demographic questions

A few important notes regarding the availability and nature of some demographic questions in the 2016 census follow.[15]

The census included questions about:

  • Sex: The census included a “binary” question regarding sex, with just two response options: “What is this person’s sex? Male; Female”.
  • Aboriginal people (referred to as Indigenous in this report): “Is this person an Aboriginal person, that is, First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit)?”
  • Racialized Canadians: Statistics Canada identified certain groups as being from a “visible minority”, referred to as “racialized” in this report, based on a question about respondents’ backgrounds: “Is this person: Mark more than one circle or specify, if applicable.; White; South Asian (e.g., East Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, etc.); Chinese; Black; Filipino; Latin American; Arab; Southeast Asian (e.g., Vietnamese, Cambodian, Laotian, Thai, etc.); West Asian (e.g., Iranian, Afghan, etc.); Korean; Japanese; Other — specify”.
  • Language spoken most often at home: “What language does this person speak most often at home? English; French; Other language — specify”. People could select multiple languages if they were used equally often. For the custom dataset, these multiple selections were counted in each of the language groups. In other words, the combination of English + French + other is more than 100% in the dataset.
  • Immigrants to Canada: “Are you now, or have you ever been a landed immigrant in Canada? A ‘landed immigrant’ (permanent resident) is a person who has been granted the right to live in Canada permanently by immigration authorities.

Variables such as disability, deafness, and sexual orientation are not available in the dataset and are therefore excluded from the analysis in this report.

Nine arts occupations and 50 cultural occupations

Artist occupations (also included as cultural occupations)

  • 5121 Authors and writers
  • 5131 Producers, directors, choreographers and related occupations
  • 5132 Conductors, composers and arrangers
  • 5133 Musicians and singers
  • 5134 Dancers
  • 5135 Actors and comedians
  • 5136 Painters, sculptors and other visual artists
  • 5232 Other performers, n.e.c.
  • 5244 Artisans and craftspersons

Non-artist cultural occupations related to broadcasting, film and video, sound recording, performing arts and publishing

  • 5122 Editors
  • 5123 Journalists
  • 5222 Film and video camera operators
  • 5223 Graphic arts technicians
  • 5224 Broadcast technicians
  • 5225 Audio and video recording technicians
  • 5226 Other technical and coordinating occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting and the performing arts
  • 5227 Support occupations in motion pictures, broadcasting, photography and the performing arts
  • 5231 Announcers and other broadcasters
  • 0512 Managers – publishing, motion pictures, broadcasting and performing arts

Cultural occupations related to printing

  • 1423 Desktop publishing operators and related occupations
  • 7303 Supervisors, printing and related occupations
  • 7381 Printing press operators
  • 9471 Plateless printing equipment operators
  • 9472 Camera, platemaking and other prepress occupations
  • 9473 Binding and finishing machine operators

Cultural occupations related to libraries, archives and heritage

  • 0511 Library, archive, museum and art gallery managers
  • 1253 Records management technicians
  • 1451 Library assistants and clerks
  • 1452 Correspondence, publication and regulatory clerks
  • 5111 Librarians
  • 5112 Conservators and curators
  • 5113 Archivists
  • 5211 Library and public archive technicians
  • 5212 Technical occupations related to museums and art galleries

Cultural occupations related to architecture

  • 2151 Architects
  • 2152 Landscape architects
  • 2153 Urban and land use planners
  • 2225 Landscape and horticulture technicians and specialists
  • 2251 Architectural technologists and technicians

Cultural occupations related to design

  • 2175 Web designers and developers
  • 2252 Industrial designers
  • 2253 Drafting technologists and technicians
  • 5241 Graphic designers and illustrators
  • 5242 Interior designers and interior decorators
  • 5243 Theatre, fashion, exhibit and other creative designers
  • 5245 Patternmakers – textile, leather and fur products

Cultural occupations not included elsewhere

  • 2224 Conservation and fishery officers
  • 1123 Professional occupations in advertising, marketing and public relations
  • 5221 Photographers
  • 9474 Photographic and film processors

 

Footnotes

[1] The other performers category includes circus performers, magicians, puppeteers, models, and other performers not elsewhere classified.

[2] Statistics Canada identified certain people as being from a “visible minority” based on a question about their background.  This report refers to these people as “racialized”.

[3] Reports from 2001 and 2006 excluded respondents with no income, while this report places no restriction on incomes.

[4] Statistics Canada identified certain people as being from a “visible minority” based on a question about their background.  This report refers to these people as “racialized”.

[5] Statistics in this report are based on “experienced labour force”, which captures those Canadians who had an occupation in May of 2016, or who had worked since January of 2015. To ensure data reliability and accuracy, no estimates of fewer than 40 artists are provided in this report.

[6] The other performers category includes circus performers, magicians, puppeteers, models, and other performers not elsewhere classified.

[7] This report focuses on median incomes, which are believed to provide a better indication of the typical situation of artists than the average (i.e., the “mean”), which is more strongly affected by a few individuals with very high incomes. Information on average incomes is provided in the detailed tables appended to the report.

[8] A full list of cultural occupations is provided in Appendix 2.

[9] To ensure data reliability and accuracy, no estimates of fewer than 40 artists are provided in this report. For some statistics, the three territories have been grouped together in order to avoid presenting unreliable figures.

[10] Statistics Canada identified certain people as being from a “visible minority” based on a question about their background.  This report refers to these people as “racialized”

[11] The information and cultural industries grouping includes publishing, motion pictures, sound recording, broadcasting, and other industries.

[12] The information and cultural industries grouping includes publishing, motion pictures, sound recording, broadcasting, and other industries.

[13] These very low numbers are not considered reliable and are not presented here.

[14] 25% of households were asked to complete the long-form census, and the weighted response rate was 96.9%. Source: Guide to the Census of Population, 2016, accessed at https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/ref/98-304/index-eng.cfm.

[15] The long-form census questions were accessed at https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2016/ref/questionnaires/questions-eng.cfm.

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